We often infer that other peoples actions are

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We often infer that other people’s actions are indicative of their intentions and dispositions (Jones & Davis, 1965) - Correspondence inference theory (Jones & Davis, 1965) o Several factors or conditions to consider in inferring intention and disposition o Non-common effects The consequences of a chosen action should be compared with the consequences of possible alternative actions The more distinctive the consequences of a choice the more confidently you can infer intention and disposition o Low-social desirability Socially undesirable actions are more informative about intentions and disposition o Expectancies Only behaviors disconfirm expectancies are truly informative Category based vs target based o Choice Is the action freely chosen? - Spontaneous trait inference o An effortless, automatic inference of a trait after exposure to someone’s behavior Commonsense attributions - How we explain behavior by using information about “consistency”, “distinctiveness” and “consensus” (Kelly, 1972) - Covariation model (Kelley, 1972) o Consensus Do other people react/behave the same way? o Consistency Is the person’s reaction/behavior the same over time? o Distinctiveness Does the other person react/behave the same way with other stimuli?
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- People often discount a contributing cause of behavior if other plausible causes are already known Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias) - The tendency to overestimate a person’s dispositional factors and underestimate the situational factors when explaining their behavior (Ross, 1977) - Jones and Harris (1967) o Essay on Fidel Castro o IV1: with choice vs without choice o IV2: essay (pro-Castro vs anti-Castro) o DV: the degree to which individuals think the writer is pro- or anti- Castro o When told that the debater chose which position to take students logically enough assumed it reflected the person’s own attitude o When told that the debate coach had assigned the position did not prevent students from inferring that the debater in fact had the assigned leanings o People don’t take choice sufficiently into account - Error is so irresistible that even when people know they are causing someone else’s behavior still underestimate external influences - Tend to presume that others are the way they act - Amabile and Ross (1977) o Set up a stimulated quiz game o Some were assigned the role of questioner while some were assigned the role of contestant and others to observe o Invited the questioners to make up difficult questions that would demonstrate their wealth of knowledge o Everyone had to know that the questioner would have the advantage o Bothe contestants and observers came to a conclusion that the questioners really were more knowledgeable than the contestants - Actor/observer effect o An extension of the FAE o Others’ behavior: dispositional attributions o Own behavior: situational attributions o Perspective and information availability o
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