Conciliation facilitation reconciliation and the non

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conciliation, facilitation, reconciliation and the non-binding type of arbitration.The non-diplomatic methods include the use of force, litigation/adjudication, and the bindingtype of arbitration. Here, parties to the conflict relinquish their decision-making authority to athird party and hence, must accept the outcome.Non-Diplomatic Methods (Legal Methods)(a) ForceThis is where one party overpowers the other or resolves their differences by use of force orviolence. This method is commonly used by governments to control or quell crises e.g. duringviolent demonstrations or riots, armed forces are used forcefully restore law and order. Also, in afight between two groups/people, force may be used to separate them. The method does notaddress the root causes of the problem and is therefore a temporary measure, for the amelioration(conflict reduction) of a bad situation into manageable one.42
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(b) Adjudication/LitigationAlso known as the court system, this is a highly structured process conducted in a court of law.An impartial judge or jury (adjudicator) who is a professionally trained advocate/attorney hearsthe facts of the dispute, and on the basis of existing rules/legislation, imposes a decisionenforceable by rewards and punishments for rulings or judgments of innocent and guiltyrespectively. The adjudicator (or third party) has coercive powers conferred by the state andhence, imposes legally binding decisions. In this method, conflicting parties have no chance ofchoosing their arbiter who could address their emotional aspects such as values, beliefs, needs,etc but only issues of law. That is, the judgments are based on material facts of law and which donot bother with relationships.(c) ArbitrationThis is a form of dispute resolution where a third party makes the decisions regarding theoutcome of dispute. Typically, the parties appoint the arbiter to make the decision. The arbiter sdecision is either binding or non-binding on the parties depending on the arrangement made priorto entering the arbitration process. Non-binding arbitration is frequently used to assist partieswho are deadlocked on a certain issue. While there is no obligation for the parties to accept theoutcome, the weight of the arbiter may provide the impetus for parties to reconsider theirsettlement options.Two types of arrangements are always made before entering the arbitration process here:(a)That the decision of the arbiter is either legally binding or non-binding(b) There is also a fee to be paid to the arbiter and which is shared between the two parties tothe conflictDiplomatic Methods(d) Good governanceGood governance may be defined as the running of the affairs of government in positive andprogressive manners beneficial to the governed, and which delivers the public goods. It is arelative term to which there is no consensus, but most will agree that it is characterized by43
democratization, maintenance of law and order, accountability and transparency, responsivenesson the part of the government, due process, the rule of law, competence, separation and

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