Planococcus sp Cultures comprise motile single polar flagellum often paired

Planococcus sp cultures comprise motile single polar

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eases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Planococcus sp. Cultures comprise motile (single polar flagellum), often paired Gram-positive cocci of 1-2 jim in diameter, which possess a strictly aerobic metabolism for glucose, and produce catalase, P-galactosidase and oxidase, but not gelatinase, H2S, indole or lysine decarboxylase. Growth occurs at 37°C and in 0-15% (w/v) sodium chloride. From these traits and despite a freshwater rather than a marine origin, it was considered that the organisms belonged in the genus Planococcus, possibly related to P. citreus (Hao and Komagata, 1985). Staphylococcaceae representatives Staphylococcus aureus During 1982 and 1983, mortalities occurred among silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, at a farm in India. These mortalities were associated with eye disease, from which Gram-positive cocci were recovered, and identified as Staphylococcus aureus (Shah and Tyagi, 1986). Staphylococcus aureus The cultures were described as comprising Gram-positive cocci, which produce coagulase and phosphatase, degrade blood (P-haemolysis) and DNA, and ferment glucose and mannitol. Zones of opalescence develop around (black) colonies on Baird-Parker's agar. From this description, an identification of Staphylococcus aureus was achieved (Shah and Tyagi, 1986). However, it is apparent that there are insufficient data to differ- entiate between Sta. aureus and Sta. intermedius (Kloos and Schleifer, 1986). Staphylococcus epidermidis The only reports of fish-pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have eman- ated from Japan where, from July 1976 to September 1977, severe epizootics occurred
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Characteristics of the pathogens: Gram-positive bacteria 79 in farmed yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and red sea bream {Chrysophrus major) (Kusuda and Sugiyama, 1981; Sugiyama and Kusuda, 1981a, b). From these out- breaks, six isolates, identified as Sta. epidermidis, were recovered. Staphylococcus epidermidis All cultures comprise non-motile. Gram-positive, fermentative spherical cells of approximately 0.6-1.8 jim in diameter, which form white to white/yellow colonies on BHIA. The cells occur singly, in pairs, and in irregular clusters. Catalase, P- galactosidase and phosphatase are produced, but not arginine dihydrolase, co- agulase, H2S, indole, lysine or ornithine decarboxylase or oxidase. Nitrates are reduced. The methyl red test and Voges Proskauer reaction are positive. Blood (P- haemolysis), gelatin, sodium hippurate, tributyrin and urea are degraded, but not starch, Tween 80, tyrosine or xanthine. Growth occurs at 45°C and in 0-15% (w/v) sodium chloride. Neither citrate, mucic acid nor D-tartrate is utilised (Sugiyama and Kusuda, 1981a). These isolates matched closely the species description of Sta. epidermidis (Kloos and Schleifer, 1986), and approximated to biotypes II, V and VI of Baird-Parker (1963, 1965). It is curious that a diverse range of serotypes, i.e. five serotypes, were recog- nised (Sugiyama and Kusuda, 1981a). The G + C content of the DNA was not assessed.
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  • Bacteria, representative, gram-negative bacteria

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