Bind to ach receptors on muscles preventing muscle

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bind to AcH receptors on muscles preventing muscle contraction Rheumatoid arthritis→ a systemic autoimmune disease in which antibodies and immune complexes of IgG and anti­IgG target collage in CT within joints Most common in women aged 30­50 Contrast the two main categories of immunodeficiency disorders. Primary (congenital) → results from genetic defect or environmental factors that impair development that may affect B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, phagocytes, or complement components Antibody deficiencies: 9
UNIT 3­Module 8­Ch 17, 18: Immunological Disorders and Applications of the Immune Response Selective IgA deficiency → occurs when little or no IgA is produced Agammaglobulinemia → when few or no antibodies are produced Lymphocyte deficiencies DiGeorge syndrome→ when the thymus fails to develop in the embryo, so T cells do not differentiate and absent in circulation cellular defenses are diminished and are therefore susceptible to viral infections affected individuals have other developmental defects (i.e heart and blood vessel abnormalities) characteristic appearance with low­set deformed ears, small mouth and wide set of eyes Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) → results when hematopoietic stem cells of bone marrow do not produce T and B lymphocytes (aka boy in the bubble) Defects in phagocytic cells Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) → caused by a defect that results in failure of lymphocytes to produce hydrogen peroxide Chediak­higashi disease → lysosomes in phagocytes lack certain enzymes and cannot destroy phagocytized bacteria Leukocyte adhesion deficiency → white blood cells (WBCs) fail to leave the circulation to concentrate at sites of infection Defects in complement system Immune complex diseases → defects In early components (C1 and C2) Recurrent Neisseria infections → defects in late components (C5, C6, C7, C8) because MACs cannot destroy the bacteria Uncontrolled complement activation→ lack of C1­inhibitor Secondary (acquired) → occur as result of infection or other stresses on system (e.g., malnutrition, advanced age, pregnancy, viral infections etc) AIDS → caused by HIV, a retrovirus that destroys helper T cells leaving the person highly susceptible to infections Measles→ replicates in lymphoid cells, and destroys them Syphilis, leprosy, malaria→ impact T­cell population and macrophages Multiple myeloma → malignancy arising from a single transformed plasma cell (proliferates out of control) in which large quantities of immunoglobulin are produced at the expense of others needed to fight infection Other lymphoid disorders→ macroglobulinemia (overproduction of 10
UNIT 3­Module 8­Ch 17, 18: Immunological Disorders and Applications of the Immune Response IgM) & some forms of leukemia Ch 18: Applications of the Immune Response Compare and contrast active, passive, naturally acquired and artifically acquired immunity

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