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bind to AcH receptors on muscles preventing muscle contraction○Rheumatoid arthritis→a systemic autoimmune disease in which antibodies andimmune complexes of IgG and antiIgG target collage in CT within joints■Most common in women aged 3050●Contrast the two main categories of immunodeficiency disorders.○Primary (congenital) →results from genetic defect or environmental factors thatimpair development that may affect B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells,phagocytes, or complement components■Antibody deficiencies:9
UNIT 3Module 8Ch 17, 18: Immunological Disorders and Applications of the ImmuneResponse●Selective IgA deficiency→ occurs when little or no IgA isproduced●Agammaglobulinemia→ when few or no antibodies are produced■Lymphocyte deficiencies●DiGeorge syndrome→when the thymus fails to develop in theembryo, so T cells do not differentiate and absent in circulation○cellular defenses are diminished and are thereforesusceptible to viral infections○affected individuals have other developmental defects (i.eheart and blood vessel abnormalities)○characteristic appearance with lowset deformed ears,small mouth and wide set of eyes●Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) →results whenhematopoietic stem cells of bone marrow do not produce T and Blymphocytes (aka boy in the bubble)■Defects in phagocytic cells●Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)→ caused by a defectthat results in failure of lymphocytes to produce hydrogen peroxide●Chediakhigashi disease→ lysosomes in phagocytes lack certainenzymes and cannot destroy phagocytized bacteria●Leukocyte adhesion deficiency→ white blood cells (WBCs) failto leave the circulation to concentrate at sites of infection■Defects in complement system●Immune complex diseases→ defects In early components (C1and C2)●RecurrentNeisseriainfections→ defects in late components(C5, C6, C7, C8) because MACs cannot destroy the bacteria●Uncontrolled complement activation→lack of C1inhibitor○Secondary (acquired)→ occur as result of infection or other stresses on system(e.g., malnutrition, advanced age, pregnancy, viral infections etc)■AIDS→ caused by HIV, a retrovirus that destroys helper T cells leavingthe person highly susceptible to infections■Measles→ replicates in lymphoid cells, and destroys them■Syphilis, leprosy, malaria→impact Tcell population and macrophages■Multiple myeloma→ malignancy arising from a single transformedplasma cell (proliferates out of control) in which large quantities ofimmunoglobulin are produced at the expense of others needed to fightinfection■Other lymphoiddisorders→macroglobulinemia(overproduction of10
UNIT 3Module 8Ch 17, 18: Immunological Disorders and Applications of the ImmuneResponseIgM) & some forms of leukemiaCh 18: Applications of the Immune Response●Compare and contrast active, passive, naturally acquired and artifically acquiredimmunity○