POSC
Chinese Politics Reading Notes.docx

This development had the practical effect of doubling

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This development had the practical effect of doubling and even tripling the peasants’ tax obligations and was a major cause of rural unrest The British insisted on their right to sell opium in China in the name of free trade. This
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led to the infamous Opium War between the two countries, a war in which China was easily defeated. The Treaty of Nanjing stipulated that China cede Hong Kong to the British. In addition five Chinese ports were to be opened to foreign trade. The Chinese government could not regulate this trade nor could it impose its own tariffs. China was required to pay Britain 21 million taels of silver as compensation for the opium destroyed by Chinese officials. The Americans in 1899 promoted the idea of “open door” policies as a means of checking the rising Japanese influence. The Japanese invasion had the unintended effect of boosting the strength and popularity of the Chinese communist party The Pacific war had the effect of discrediting the Western colonial powers and of encouraging the rising tide of Asian nationalism Many conservative elements had become politically discredited as a result of their collaboration with the Japanese imperialists during the pacific war The Pacific war brought about Japan’s total devastation. Its economy and cities were in total shameless. Although the US had professed the ideals of national self determination and liberal democracy in its fight against the fascist powers in WW2, it did not implement those ideals in East Asia after the struggle was over The large size of the US domestic market and the affluence of the American consumers have historically inclined US companies to be inward rather than outward looking Japanese model of development tends to favor producers at the expense of consumers The entrepreneurial vitality of these overseas Chinese therefore fuels speculations about the cultural roots of their commercial success Those who favor cultural explanations point to frugality, hard work, family loyalty, respect for authority and education, a strong achievement orientation, and a keen sense of personal obligation to group welfare. Average hourly wages are considerably lower in Japan and South Korea. East Asia’s rich traditions embody a variety of values that can have both growth- promoting and growth-retarding effects Culture and Ideology Ideas of who we are as human beings are embedded in two types of worldview, one called culture and the other called ideology Culture is the intricate set of habits, customs, values, beliefs, and attitudes we inherit from those who nurture us in early life Ideologies are ideas that are precipitated by and respond to radical political and social change By the mid-nineteenth century, three ideologies destined to have major impacts on the rest of the world-liberalism, conservatism, and socialism-had made their appearance in Western Europe and begun their dispersion abroad.
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