police less likely to notice female gang members ° ° young typically teenagers range of ages from 12 to 30 ° ° belong to minor groups during the early 1900s most gang members were white ° ° How are gangs organized or structured? ° ° Most are loosely organized Don’t have well defined roles Distinction between core members and fringe members (wannabes) Leaders may shift from occasion to occasion Divided into age groups
Divided into informal cliques or subgroups ° ° Few well defined goals or rules to follow ° ° Memberships changes over time – most belong to the gang for less than a year ° ° Gang is not highly cohesive ° ° Conflict between members of the same gang ° ° what are female gangs like? ° ° Females are found in three types of gangs Mixed sex gangs – both males and females Females gangs that are associated with male gangs Independent female gangs ° ° Female gang members are largely subservient to males Seen as sexual objects Exercise a good deal of control they can sanction indiscriminate sexual behavior °
° Engage in a wide range of delinquent acts ° ° Female gang members are not as delinquent as male gang members ° ° Females join gangs for many of the same reasons that males join Have friends or relatives in gangs Gang seen as a solution ° ° Two problems with female gang members More likely than males to have experienced problems like abuse at homes o Easy to escape from home like o Cope with such problems o Form close ties with peers More likely than males to partially escape from the gender oppression they encounter or anticipate encountering o Way to cope with a bleak and hard present o And a dismal future ° ° why do some juveniles join gangs? ° ° Some are social in nature Source of fun
Socialize with friends Like the support, companionship and sense of belonging ° ° Desire for a positive identity and status Feel important, powerful, respected and feared by others ° ° Desire for security and protection from others ° ° Reasoning of financial gains ° ° Members go through an initiation ceremony Involve being jumped in or beaten in ° ° Most member leave the gang within a year Witnessing the death or injury of a friend Being the direct victim of violence Being sent to a correctional facility Maturing out with age Gang may break up ° ° APPLYING THE THOERIES
° ° Join gangs in an effort to come with their strain Unable to achieve goals through legitimate channels Make money through illegitimate channels Achieve status or respect Loss of positive stimuli Presentation of a negative stimuli Be harassed by others Source of protection Source of excitement in their dull lives ° ° Strained individuals are more likely to join gangs IF they have friends whoa re gang members live in communities where gang members are respected reinforced for membership ° ° gang membership is more likely when juveniles are in low control – not well supervised
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- Fall '10
- Gang, delinquent peers