Formalin and bacteriological media may be the order of the day Of course the

Formalin and bacteriological media may be the order

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tician in the rush to attack the specimen with scalpel and swabs. Formalin and bacteriological media may be the order of the day. Of course, the same is not true elsewhere in veterinary and human medicine where diagnosis is often achieved by apparently cursory glances at the wretched individual. Fish may display many behavioural and physical changes, some of which give valuable clues as to the nature of the disease (Table 6.1). It should be emphasised, however, that many symptoms are common to a multitude of bacterial diseases. Consequently, in the following discussion symptoms have been categorised in clear groups rather than splitting them into a plethora of esoteric detail. Thus, many external signs of disease are recognised which are pertinent to the bacterial fish pathogens (Table 6.1). Sluggish behaviour With some infections, notably those caused by Bacillus sp., CI. botulinum, Cor. aquaticum, Fla. johnsoniae, Haf. alvei, J. lividum, Mycobacterium spp., Myc. absces- sus, Nocardia spp., Piscirickettsia salmonis, Shewanella putrefaciens, Sir. difficilis, Str. iniae, V. anguillarum. V. ordalii, V. splendidus, V. tapetis and Y. intermedia, the fish may become very inactive, and often cease feeding. Flatfish—for example, turbot—lie Hstlessly on the bottom of the tank, whereas salmonids float just below the surface of the water. In this state, death may quickly follow. Twirling, spiral or erratic movement This is often indicative of neurological damage. The offending pathogens include Cit. freundii, CI. botulinum, Edw. ictaluri, Eu. tarantellae, Lactococcus garvieae, Str. difficilis, Str. iniae and V. harveyi. Faded pigment With this condition, attributed to a reduction in melanin content, the fish become very pale. This may occur with infections caused by Arc. cryaerophilus, Edw. tarda, Mycobacterium spp. and Nocardia spp. Darkened pigment/melanosis An enhancement of pigment results from infection with Bac. mycoides, Arc. cryaero- philus, Fla. psychrophilum, Haf. alvei, J. lividum, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus piscium. Micrococcus luteus, Piscirickettsia salmonis, Rhodococcus sp.. Streptococcus spp., V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, Y. intermedia and Y. ruckeri.
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Diagnosis 187 OH H + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I + I I I + + I I I I + + 4 I + + I I I + + I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I + I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I + I I I I I I I I + I I I + I I I I I I + + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I + I + + I I + + I O 41^ d PH d OH en ^ ^ ^ ^' ^ ^ ^ 1 ^' ^ ^ :! •^ ^ o ^ ^ <<> ^' ^ ^ ^^ d C/5 0 5 p^ ^' ^ ^ & ^ ^ ^ b ^ <J ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ oq <<> ^ ^ ^ oq s ^ ^ oq s s ^ ^ b^ ^ c<j ^ rS ^ ^ ^• ^^ -ss .^ o o o o g s •^ ^ s ^ ^ ^' o O S! ^ 3 •^ ^ ^ t^ I I I I I + I I + 1 1 1 + I I I I I d g s ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I + I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + 11 + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I ^ - ^ - ^ I + I I + I + I + I + + I + I + + I I I I I I + + ^ ^ ?^ -^ § ^ . ^ ^ i I - ^ ^ g g ^^ ^ ^ - ^ <:j - ^ -id C^, ^ •'-- ^ — I ^S ^S ^ Fr^ Fr^ h^ .
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Bacterial Fish Pathogens o I I I I I I I I I I I
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