• produce may tone colors and have wide ranges of pitch and dynamics •they can control tone as subtly as a singer • orchestral works tend to rely more on the strings than any other group • how they are made… •hollow wooden body of strings supports four strings made of gut or wire •strings stretch, under tension, from a tailpiece on one end over a wooden bridge to the other end, where they are fastened around wooden pegs. •the bridge holds the strings away from the fingerboard so that they can vibrate feely •the bridge also transmits the strings vibrations to the body, which amplifies and colors the tone. •each string is tuned to a different pitch by tightening or loosening the pegs. *greater the tension, the higher the pitch •how it is played •musician makes string vibrate by drawing the bow across it with the right hand. •the speed and pressure of the bow stroke control the duynamis and tone color of the sound produced. •pitch is controlled by the musician’s left hand • stopping a string… by pressing a string against the fingerboard,
the player varies the length of its vibrating portion and so changes its pitch •the vibrations are stopped at a certain point along the strings length. •thus a range of pitches can be drawn from each of the four strings. •viola, cello, and double bass are made in the same manner as the violin and produce sound by similar means. • techniques for playing strings Pizzicato: (plucked string), usually with finger on the right hand, in jazz the double bass is plucked. Double Stop: (two notes at once), drawing the bow across two strings, a player can sound two notes at once, same is true with Triple Stop, Quadruple Stop Vibrato : (rocking the left hand while pressing the string down), produces a throbbing, expressive tone, causes small pitch flucuations, which make the tone warmer. Mute: the musican can veil or muffle the tone by fitting a clamp (mute) onto the bridge Tremolo: (the musician rapidly repeats tones by quick up and down strokes of the bow), creates a sense of tension, when loud, or a shimmering sound, when soft. Harmonics: ( very high pitched tones), like a whistle’s, are produced when the musician lightly touches certain points on a string.
• some strings are not played with a bow but are plucked instead, either with the fingers or with a plecturm (a small wedge). • most important instruments of these are the harp and guitar. • harp is only plucked string instrument that has gained wide acceptance in the symphony orchestra. Woodwinds… named because they were traditionally made of wood, but in 20 th century piccolo and flutes came to be made of metal. • sounds of woodwinds generated by a vibrating air column in a tube • they all have little holes along their length that are opened and closed by the fingers or by pads controlled by a key mechanism.
- Spring '08
- Music, Musical instrument, Clarinet, double bass, percussion instruments, tone color