possible and successful in previous research using the Real-Time Hostile Attribution Measurement ( Yaros, Lochman, Rosenbaum & Jimenez-Camargo, 2014). Non-violent video games will be defined as a game with an ESRB rating of E. Violent video games will be defined as a game with an ESRB rating of M. The type of video games (violent and non-violent) were identified using the Entertainment Software Rating Board. ESRB ratings suggest age appropriateness. Non-verbal aggression is defined as any physical behavior that expresses anger felt by the participant. Examples of this could be shaking the controller rapidly, hitting the controller, hitting self or another object, throwing controller, stomping feet, making angry faces, etc. Verbal aggression is defined as any words produced by a participant that is directed toward the game or another player that is aggressive, derogatory, or of an unkind nature. Methodology Our sample size includes two hundred adolescent students. 200 students, ages ranging from 12 to 18, were randomly sampled from a Phoenix High and Middle School. No experience in video games was required and all were encouraged to volunteer in order to assure all had an
EFFECTS OF PLAYING VIDEO GAMES AND AGGRESSION 4 opportunity to be randomly selected and to increase generalizability. All participants and parents were given an informed written consent form to participate in this study. The study was reviewed and approved by the Professor Committee of School in Psychology and Ethics, Grand Canyon University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; 50 participants in a neutral video game offline, 50 participants in a neutral video game online, 50 participants in a violent video game offline and 50 participants in a violent video game online. A Video Game Questionnaire (Anderson and Dill, 2000) required participants to rate video games on the level of violent content, and exposure to violent images on a 7-point scale (1, participants played a video game with no violent content or images; 7, participants played a video game with many violent content and images). Additionally, a self-report questionnaire using a similar 7-point scale was administered to each participant after playing each game, assessing the extent to which the respondents feel an increase in aggressive behavior (1, participants felt no increase in aggressive behavior; 7, participants felt a great deal of increase in aggressive behavior).
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- Nonviolent video game, Entertainment Software Rating Board