Spacing effect- The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect- Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.Imagery- Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with encoding.Mnemonics- Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.Chunking - Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.Iconic memory- A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a secondEchoic memory- A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.Flashbulb memory- A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.Amnesia- The loss of memory.Implicit memory- Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)Explicit memory- Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)Hippocampus- A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.Recall- A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank testRecognition- A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.Relearning- A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.Priming- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.Déjà vu- That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.Mood-congruent memory- The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.Misinformation effect- Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source amnesia- Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.Long-term potentiation- An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation, believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.Proactive interference- The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.Retroactive interference- The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.Repression- In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.