paths, and feedback loops that can be used by the stakeholders. Dependingon the culture of the organization, this agreement and determination canbe done verbally (i.e., by “shaking hands”) or, more formally, by means ofwritten documentation. The individual agreements should be signed offby the managers.Obligations and privileges of the stakeholdersA number of obligations and privileges result from the agreement withthe stakeholders.The requirements engineerspeaks the language of the stakeholders,becomes thoroughly familiar with the application domain,creates a requirements document,is able to get work results across (e.g., by means of diagrams andgraphs),maintains a respectful relationship with any stakeholder,presents her ideas and alternatives as well as their realizations,allows stakeholders to demand properties that make the system user-friendly and simple,ensures that the system satisfies the functional and qualitative demandsof the stakeholders.The stakeholdersintroduce the requirements engineer to the application domain,supply the requirements engineer with requirements,document requirements assiduously,make timely decisions,respect the requirements engineer’s estimates of costs and feasibility,prioritize requirements,inspect the requirements that the requirements engineer documents,such as prototypes, etc.,communicate changes in requirements immediately,adhere to the predetermined change process,respect the requirements engineering process that has been instated.
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223Eliciting Requirements Elicitation techniquesdetermine communicationand process.In addition, the requirements engineer plans and organizes the communi-cation paths as well as drafts a structured schedule for the requirementsengineering activities that are to be performed in collaboration with thestakeholders. This organization and the type of communication are signif-icantly influenced by the elicitation techniques that can be used duringrequirements engineering.3.2Requirements Categorization According to the Kano ModelInfluence of the requirementson satisfactionKnowing the importance of a requirement for the satisfaction of the stake-holders is very helpful for requirements elicitation. Along with the respec-tive properties of a product that determine the satisfaction, the satisfactionis classified into the following three categories [Kano et al. 1984]:Dissatisfiers are properties of the system that are self-evident and takenfor granted (subconscious knowledge).Satisfiers are explicitly demanded system properties (conscious knowl-edge).Delightersare system properties that the stakeholder does not know orexpect and discovers only while using the system—a pleasant and use-ful surprise (unconscious knowledge).As time goes by, delighters turn into satisfiers and dissatisfiers as the userbecomes accustomed to the properties of the system. When elicitingrequirements, all three categories must be considered.
3.2Requirements Categorization According to the Kano Model23Figure 3-1 Graphical representation of the Kano modelDissatisfiersDissatisfiers
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