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•Kidney cortex– The superficial kidney region, which is lighter in color.
•Medullary region– The region deep to the cortex and it is a darker reddish-brown color; the medulla is segregated into triangular regions that have a striped, or striated appearance – the medullary (renal) pyramids.•Renal columns– Areas of tissue, similar to the cortex in appearance, which segregate and dip inward between the pyramids.
•Renal pelvis– Medial to the hilus; a fairly flat, basin-like cavity that is continuous with the ureter, which exits from the hilus region; the large or primary extensions are called the major calycesand subdivisions of the major calyces are called the minor calyces.•About one-fourth of the total blood flow of the body is delivered to the kidneys each minute by the large renal arteries.
Functional Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney and Bladder: Kidney•Nephronsare the anatomical units responsible for forming urine. Each kidney contains over a million nephrons.•Each nephron consists of two major structures: a glomerulus(a capillary knot) and a renal tubule.
•In embryonic development, each renal tubule starts as a blind-ended tubule that slowly encloses an adjacent glomerulus, or capillary cluster.•The enlarged end of the tubule encasing the glomerulus is the Bowman’s capsule, and its inner wall consists of highly specialized cells called podocytes.•The glomerulus-capsule complex is also known as a the renal corpuscle.
•The rest of the tubule is about 3 cm long.•When it emerges from the glomerular capsule, it becomes highly coiled before it enters a collecting duct.