A high level of goal specificity within an

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to an appropriate systems perspective as being the rational model. A high level of goal specificitywithin an organization lends itself to guidance on all other matters within an organization; personnel decisions, budget allocations, procedures and processes, public-facing content, among
SPIELBERG UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 5a myriad of other decisions and actions. The decisions, based upon the specific goal being pursued, in turn lead to formalized structures regarding such issues, including reporting procedures, communication protocols, safety processes, and new goal implementation. Scott and Davis (2016) points out that organizations can be identified as a rational system even if the goals are vague, but the pursuit of those goals has led to the development of formalized structures, and smaller more specific goals, as in educational systems or environmental groups. Within rational systems there are formal procedures and hierarchies that are visible and known. These systems are in place to streamline and clarify roles within the organization. Educational Institutions as Natural SystemsThe core of school districts are the employees that are involved in the classroom instruction of students, as well as the administrators who lead them. Each of these individuals could have personal goals which are in competition with each other. These individuals could share goals, but also have differing opinions on how to achieve said goals. Groups of individuals that share ideals and goals tend to come together, and can create coalitions within a district. This can come into play during contract negotiations, textbook and curriculum adoptions, even down to the minute details of a bell schedule. Among these individuals there are those that have a high degree of influence, due to longevity in the district, veteran status, perceived intelligence, or ties to other powerful players. These informal structures are just as crucial to the effective uning of school districts as are the formal structures. The above description of the school district would seem to identify the district as appropriate candidates for analysis using a natural systems perspective. In the natural system perspective, less emphasis is placed on the formal structures ofan organization, and instead the focus is on the interpersonal and informal structures within an organization as more important (Onday, 2016). Natural systems theorists propose that the individual goals and motives of organizational members, as well as organizational norms and values, have a more profound impact on the day-to-day functions and processes of organizations
SPIELBERG UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT 6(Ali, 2008).Within natural systems there can exist a complex system of goals, with the possibility of stated, public goals being in conflict with the actual goals being pursued by the organization or by individuals or small groups. In addition, the importance of the informal structures within an organization are not ignored. Scott and Davis (2016) point out that each individual brings to the organization their own experience, perspectives, morals and values, thus

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