POL's WWeek8 Readings.docx

Can be either totalitarian or authoritarian

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Can be either totalitarian or authoritarian. Selectorate is typically limited to the highest-ranking members of that party. Control over, and transfer of political power takes place entirely within the top ranks of the ruling party. Lines of accountability run both ways! The leader owes his or her job to and is accountable to the selectorate, but the selectorate is also accountable to the leader. Today, the People’s Republic of China is an example of a single-party regime. MILITARY REGIMES Selectorate is typically limited to the highest ranks of the military officer corps. This group selects and removes the leader. Relationship between the leaders and the selectorate is highly institutionalized, because the rules for advancement are fairly clear. Military leaders deciding to enter politics by a civilian government have the advantages of overwhelming firepower and a highly institutionalized structure of command/control. Why do military leaders only sometimes intervene in politics? 1) The politicization of the officer corps. 2) Self0interest in defending their organizational interests. Also defending their share of the national budgets. 3) Resisting threats or perceived threats to their control over the means of coercion. 4) When both soldiers and average citizens perceive civilian political institutions as legitimate, military leaders are less likely to overthrow the existing system. The weakness and illegitimacy of civilian political institutions means that the population may acquiesce or even support the intervention by the armed forces. 7
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Military regimes are more common in weak states because the army may be the only strong institution remaining. Modern example of a military regime is Myanmar (formely Burma). OLIGARCHIES Means “Rule by the few”. The selectorate consists of a small social, economic, or political elite, who select a leader to represent their interests. Criteria for membership in the selectorate is informal. Family connections do not necessarily determine membership in the selectorate. The ruling elite may be powerful economic actors. Relationship between the leaders and the selectorate is less institutionalized, more informal. Not direct control, but rather influence. In an oligarchy, influential people profit from their personal and family connections, often without having formal control over the apparatus of government. THEOCRACIES Unlike all other forms of non-democracy, their leaders claim divine guidance to hold the authority to rule. Leaders acquire their positions by rising through a religious clerical hierarchy. Therefore the selectorate is mad up of high religious authorities. As each faith is internally devided we cannot identify what specific theocracies will look like. Because etheocratic governance is guided by religious principles, theocracy also embodies elements of totalitarianism. - Remake individuals identities and interest according to their religion’s dictates. Religious authorities in a theocracy would not seek to demobilize citizens but would seek to encourage, spread and depend their faith.
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