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Superior orbital fissure v1 the foramen rotundum v2

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superior orbital fissure(V1), the foramen rotundum (V2), and theforamen ovale (V3)Sensory GSAThree differentnuclei1.Chief Sensory nucleus of VGSA –fine touch and proprioception fromthe face2.Mesencephalic nucleus of VGSA –proprioception from the muscles ofmastication- extend from main to midbrain- cells are misplaced dorsal rootganglion cells3.Spinal nucleus of VGSApainand temperature from the face- extends as a column to the cervicalspinal cord where it emerges withsubstantia gelatinosa- central processes of cells intrigeminal ganglion pass caudally asspinal tract of Vand terminate in theSN VMotor1.Motor nucleus of V(SVE) – tomuscle of mastication and tensortympani-located rostral to motor nucleus ofVII and the N.ambiguus- Axons innervate all the muscles ofmastication and tensor tympani, oneof the muscle of the inner ear-system can be homologues withthe dorsal column system2. Mesencephalic – innervate stretchreceptor in the muscle of mastication andtheir central processes project to themotor nucleus of V3. Spinal nucleus - cross and ascend withSTTMotor branchial SVEMuscles ofmastication-Tensor tympani and tensor velipalatiniLesion of trigeminal ganglion:complete paralysis of the face and loss ofafferent limb jaw reflex
Summary of:Trigeminal nerve: CNVJaw Jerk reflexCorneal blink reflexInnervation of the tongueTrochlear Nerve (IV)Unique: only CN attached to the dorsal surface ofthe brainstem and only one to originate entirelyfrom a contralateral nucleusExits the cranium via the superiororbital fissureGSE – tochlear nuceus located in themidbrain at the level of the inferiorcolliculusAxons from these cells travel dorsallyat the lateral marigin of the PAG,decussate in the superior medullaryvelum, exit dorsallyy and innervate thecontralateral superior oblique muscleUnique: only CN attached to the dorsalsurface of the brainstem and only one tooriginate entirely from a contralateralnucleus-Innervate superior ooblique musclethrough superior orbital fissueLesion of trochlear nerve causes much less damage than abducens oroculmotor nuclei-Superior oblique mucles moves the eye downward and laterally, soattempted movement in these directions may causediplopia (typicallynoted when reading or descending stairs)-Unilateral lesion of the nerveproducesipsilateralsymptoms producedby paralysis of the superior oblique muslce(HEAD TILT ISCHARACTERISTIC OF SOMEONE WITH CN IV INJURYhold their head ina certain way)-Unilateral lesion of the nucleusproducescontralateralsymptoms due tothe decussation of the axons in the superior medullary velum-Nerve damage can occur as a result of stretching of the nerve during itscourse around the brainstem or a fracture of the orbitOculomotor nerve (III)Oculomotor nuclei (GSE):Oculomotor nuclei (GSE):Lesion in GSE: unilateral lesion producesophthalmoplegia, diplopa, lateral
Horner’s syndrome: also have ptosis and unequalsize accompanyLocated in the midbrain at the level ofthe superior colliculus-Nerve exits the cranium viasuperior orbital fissure

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Term
Summer
Professor
N/A
Tags
Facial nerve, trigeminal nerve, GSA

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