with constitute breaches of internationally recognized human rights which are

With constitute breaches of internationally

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with constitute breaches of internationally recognized human rights which are applied by the United Nations into their conventions, treaties and declarations. International recognized human rights try to eradicate and eliminate all kinds of discrimination and inequality of treatment which lead into modern form of slavery and servitude. Moreover, internationally recognized human rights describes that all human being are entitled to enjoy several basic rights regardless to their race, language, colour, sex, gender, occupation, religion and other statutes. The bifurcation of rights between skilled migrant workers and unskilled migrant workers in Malaysia and Singapore which are occur because of the enactment of migration polices are the example that those policies are problematic and in contrast with the idea of universality of human rights. The stigma that domestic workers are material items that can be bought from employment agencies creates the occurrence of exploitation, abusive treatment and atrocious working conditions. The recruitment system of domestic workers which is organized by private agencies without direct involvement or monitoring system from the governments support the presence of this stigma. The recruitment system of domestic workers supports the construction of negative image of domestic workers since this system perceives domestic workers as the commodity of labour market instead of a worker. Besides, the exclusion of domestic workers from the local labour law makes them more vulnerable to be the victim of human rights violation. Furthermore, the intersection of race coupled with ethnicity, gender and status or class
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54 also influence the way how the society (employers, employment agencies and government) portray domestic workers. The images that are constructed by the intersection of race coupled with ethnicity, gender and status or class lead domestic workers into modern form of slavery or servitude. The employment system of domestic workers and intersection of race coupled with ethnicity, gender and class or status in Malaysia and Singapore can be regarded as the modern form of slavery or servitude due to the absence of protection from the local labour law combined with the occurrence of exploitation, abusive treatment and atrocious working conditions. Numerous pressures are given by human rights advocates regarding the impact of migration policies impose to domestic workers which are problematic based on the idea of universality and lead domestic workers into modern slavery or servitude. Malaysian government tries to rectify the situation by strengthening and reshuffling their policies in order to decrease and eradicate the number of human rights violation mainly for domestic workers. One of approach that Malaysian government uses to protect the rights of domestic workers by stipulating policy regarding wages where employers coupled with employment agencies are prohibited to deduct more than fifty percent of the worker’s salary per month139. But the
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