Environment Homework #2

4 section 42 question 1 what are clones and how are

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4) Section 4.2 Question #1: What are clones and how are they produced? I’m sure that when most people think of clones they think of something like Star Wars or the future in which we’ll be able to clone human beings – myself included; however, little do people know that there are in fact already clones all over the earth. These clones come from single-celled organisms or organisms with few cells through the action of asexual reproduction. In the process of asexual reproduction, there is only one parent rather than two like in sexual reproduction, which is how most plants and animals reproduce. This single parent, however, creates offspring that are exactly identical to them, and these offspring are referred to as clones. The asexual reproduction process is possible through the means of simple cell division, but more complex organisms may divide their cells to form buds that yield cones. Other plants use runners, bulbs, or tubers to reproduce asexually. 5) Section 3.2 Question #1: Differentiate between arithmetic and exponential growth. Populations are going to grow over time no matter what, but there are two different ways in which they can grow. Many populations grow by the means of an
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exponential growth, meaning that the growth of a population accelerates with each generation. An example of a population that grew at an exponential pace would be that of the European starlings that were released in Central Park in New York City in 1890. A population’s growth can also grow at an arithmetic growth, which means that a population will grow at constant pace over time with no change from generation to generation. Chapter 5 1) Section 5.1 Question #1: What factors have caused changes in human population growth rates during the past 100,000 years? Human growth rates have been growing exponentially for the past 100,000 years due to several different factors. Of all the factors that have caused the changes in human population growth rates, all of them fall under the umbrella of adaptation. Since the pre- agricultural period, humans have been adapting to their surroundings and passing these adaptations along to their succeeding generations. With the introduction of the agricultural period came an increase in human population growth as well due to domestication of plants and animals and the development of farming. Behind innovations in technology and more food available, the time it took the human population to double dipped to under 1,000 years. The industrial period brought an even more rapid pace to the human growth rate. Attributions of new technologies powered by fossil fuels caused food production to increase, and medical advancements allowed people to stay healthier.
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2) Section 5.1 Question #2: Describe the four stages of the demographic transition model of population change during the industrial period.
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