o Geography of colony made Quebec center of trade all imports and exports went

O geography of colony made quebec center of trade all

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oGeography of colony made Quebec center of trade; all imports and exports went through there. oThe English Enter the Competition: oFishermen working out of Bristol and other places may have landed in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as early as the 1480s. o1497: John Calbot completed the first recorded transatlantic voyage by an English vessel while attempting to find a Northwest passage.oDied during a second attempt to find a direct route to Cathay in 1498. oBirth of English Protestantism:oHenry VII: First Tudor Monarch.oGave nominal allegiance to the pope in Rome, but they weren’t Crusaderso1509: Henry VII married Catherine of Aragon; English merchants enjoyed limited rights to trade in Spanish American colonies.oProtestant Reformation: oSpain became the greatest threat to English. oTudor Monarchs Henry VIII (1509-1547) and Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) started a central administration, while England became a more Protestant society. oKing’s desire to rid himself of his wife Catherine of Aragon because they had produced a daughter, not a son to be the heir, which obsessed Harry- assumed that a female ruler could notmaintain peace and England would fall once again. He later requested to divorce Catherine to Pope Clement VII.o1527: Harry fell in love with Anne Boleyn, who later bore a daughter, Elizabeth, and divorced Catherine without consent. oPopular Anticlericalism helped spark religious reformation in England. oThomas Wolsey: most powerful prelate in England; flaunted immense wealth and became symbol of spiritual corruption.oAnticlericalism: historical movement opposing religious institutional power and influence. 6
Becca MillsonoThe people’s growing anger is central to an understanding of the English Reformation. o1529-1536:oThe king severed all ties with pope, seized church lands, and dissolved many monasteries. oMarch 1534: Act of Supremacy announced that the king is the supreme head of England. This made property holders acquire a vested interest in Protestantism. o1539: Publication of the first Bible in English- before had only been available in Latin, and convinced people that Henry had not reformed English Church. o1547: oHenry dies.oEngland enters a period of acute political and religious instability. oEdward VI, Henry’s son from third wife, Jane Seymour, came to throne but was a child and sickly.oMilitant Protestants insisted Church remove every trace of Catholic origins. oMary I, Henry’s eldest daughter, vowed to return England to the pope in 1553. oUnder Queen Mary:oHundreds of Protestants were executed; others scurried off to the safety of Geneva and Frankfurt, where they absorbed most radical Calvinist doctrines. oInadvertently advanced the cause of Calvinism by creating so many Protestant martyrs. o1558: She dies. oBook of Martyrs (1563) became most popular book and the Marian exiles served the Elizabethan church, remaining Calvinist. Depicted sufferings of English dissenters under Queen mary.

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