Types of nuclear bursts 23 8 there are three types of

This preview shows page 221 - 223 out of 443 pages.

TYPES OF NUCLEAR BURSTS 23-8. There are three types of nuclear bursts: subsurface burst, airburst, and surface burst. The type of burst directly affects your chances of survival. A subsurface burst occurs completely underground or underwater. Its effects remain beneath the surface or in the immediate area where the surface collapses into a crater over the burst's location. Subsurface bursts cause you little or no radioactive hazard unless you enter the immediate area of the crater. 23-9. An airburst occurs in the air above its intended target. The airburst provides the maximum radiation effect on the target and is, therefore, most dangerous to you in terms of immediate nuclear effects. 23-10. A surface burst occurs on the ground or water surface. Large amounts of fallout result, with serious long-term effects for you. This type of burst is your greatest nuclear hazard. NUCLEAR INJURIES 23-11. Most injuries in the nuclear environment result from the initial nuclear effects of the detonation. These injuries are classed as blast, thermal, or radiation injuries. Further radiation injuries may occur if you do not take proper precautions against fallout. Individuals in the area near a nuclear explosion will probably suffer a combination of all three types of injuries. Blast Injuries 23-12. Blast injuries produced by nuclear weapons are similar to those caused by conventional high- explosive weapons. Blast overpressure can collapse lungs and rupture internal organs. Projectile wounds occur as the explosion's force hurls debris at you. Large pieces of debris striking you will cause fractured limbs or massive internal injuries. Blast overpressure may throw you long distances, and you will suffer severe injury upon impact with the ground or other objects. Substantial cover and distance from the
222 explosion are the best protection against blast injury. Cover blast injury wounds as soon as possible to prevent the entry of radioactive dust particles. Thermal Injuries 23-13. The heat and light the nuclear fireball emits cause thermal injuries. First-, second-, or third-degree burns may result. Flash blindness also occurs. This blindness may be permanent or temporary depending on the degree of exposure of the eyes. Substantial cover and distance from the explosion can prevent thermal injuries. Clothing will provide significant protection against thermal injuries. Cover as much exposed skin as possible before a nuclear explosion. First aid for thermal injuries is the same as first aid for burns. Cover open burns (second- or third-degree) to prevent the entry of radioactive particles. Wash all burns before covering. Radiation Injuries 23-14. Neutrons, gamma radiation, alpha radiation, and beta radiation cause radiation injuries. Neutrons are high-speed, extremely penetrating particles that actually smash cells within your body. Gamma radiation is similar to X rays and is also highly penetrating radiation. During the initial fireball stage of a

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture