One does not become a pervert one remains one sexual

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One does not become a pervert, one remains one  Sexual perversion, not sexual “normality,” is the given human nature  Repressed and sublimated perversions help to form, and are intrinsic to,  normality  Heterosexuality is a development, a culmination, not a starting point  Halperin: “Is there a History of Sexuality” (1989): “Sex has no history. It is a natural fact, grounded in the functioning of the body, and, as such, it lies outside of history and culture…. Unlike sex, sexuality is a cultural production: it represents the appropriation of the human body and of its physiological capacities by an ideological discourse. Sexuality is not a somatic fact; it is a cultural effect. Sexuality, then, does have a history- though (as I shall argue) not a very long one” (416). Sex vs. sexuality (Halperin focuses on the latter)  Sexuality not transhistorical, universal, “natural”, or innate  “Sexuality” as a separate sphere, a mode of individuation (a feature of  personality, an identity), is a modern production  Sexuality cannot be understood outside politics, history, economics, etc.  Classical Athens (508-322 BC) “[S]ex did not express inward dispositions or inclinations so much as it 
served to position social actors in the places assigned to them, by virtue of their  political standing in the hierarchal structure of the Athenian polity” (418).  Citizens (superordinates) vs. non-citizens (subordinates)  Sex not a “mutual enterprise” “What an Athenian did in bed was determined by the differiential in status  that distinguished him or her from his or her sexual partner” (419).  A free male was measured by how he fared in war & public competition  against other free males, not by scrutinizing his sexual constitution (419).  “Sexuality… in not a cause but an effect. The social body precedes the  sexual body” (420). Foucault: The History of Sexuality (1974): Pre-modern acts vs. modern identities Punishment & crime change radically with the advent of modernity; “identity” develops: what caused the individual to commit the act (etiology) Criminal act vs. a criminal mind; act of madness vs. a “mad” personality Sodomy (anal sex between men) was previously punishable, but now the sodomite became a “pervert” in need to treatment Historically “bisexuality” would be more accurate to describe humans Putting people into categories such as heterosexual and homosexual are a new concept Victorian (17 th century) sexual practices did not require secrecy, where as now; new is ‘nonexistant’ (except for brothels and mental hospitals) Foucault challenges the notion that sex was “silenced” or ‘repressed’ during the Victorian   era: Why do so many mistakenly “define the relationship between sex and  power in terms of repression”? “If sex is repressed, that is, condemned to 

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