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oAnyangserved as the last capitalof the Shang Dynasty, from 1200 to 1046 BCEoCenter of loosely governed state called North China PlainoTurtle plastrons or scapula from cows, were used for divination, which is why the are called oracle bones. oShang elites believed a high god Di, nature gods, and the spirits of deceased kings controlled the future.oKings had massive bronzes cast and carried out sacrifices from them, filled with food to feed the spiritsoWorshipped their ancestors and frequently divined to determine their will. 4.7 The Long Zhou Dynasty ( 1045 – 256 BCE) 1045 - 256 BCE1046 BCE, a Zhou king overthrew the last Shang ruler and established control over much of northChina. oWestern Zhou (1046 – 771 BCE)Zhou kings dispatched kinsmen to territories he granted to themNobles allowed to rule land hereditarily, so as long as they observed certain obligations to their kingLords became independent, king lost control771 BCE Zhou king was murdered and his young successor was compelled to relocate farther east, to a capital closer to the heart of the North China Plain. oEastern Zhou (770 – 256 BCE)Began after murder of Zhou Kingin 771 and migration to east of china, near heart of North China Plain.During third century BCE, Zhou Kingdom was destroyed and the Qin Dynasty prevailed over the rest. 4.7.1 The Western Zhou Dynasty (1046 – 771 BCE)11thcentury BC, the Zhou stat was a minor power on the western periphery of the Shang realm, located along the Wei River. 1059 after witnessing five planets align, Zhou ruler declared himself king. King Wen, founder of Zhou Dynasty. King Wu, son of King Wen, brought down Shang Dynasty. 3 policieso1.)Established a secondary capital farther east at Luoyang, closer to North Chinag Plaino2.)They issued proclamations explaining to conquered peoples why they should accept Zhou ruleDuke of Zhou, his brother, heaven decreed that Shang kings must fall and Zhour rulers should replace them. Mandate of Heaven, used by founders of later dynasties to justify their actions, as well as by theorists to explain the rise and fallof dynasties. o3.) Zhou court adopted was to dispatch royal kinsmen to strategically critical location for the purpose of establishing colonies
Zhou kings conducted ceremonies of investiture during which they sacrificed to heaven and the spirites of deceased ancestors, held banquets, and then bestowed noble titles and grants of land upon members of the royal family and relatives by marriage. Large bronzes were cast to commemorate these occasionsAncestrial temples were built, illustrious lineages governed a predominantly rural population of farmers living in villages where life was not easyFarmers were required to submit a portion of the harvest from their own small farmsZhou Kinship feudalism.