Some right wing officers were moved to minor posts

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Some right-wing officers were moved to minor posts Urban worker reforms An entitlement to seven days’ paid leave per annum An eight-hour working day, unless overtime was paid Some social security benefits, although these were restricted to maternity, retirement and insurance against accidents in the workplace Freedom to strike without the fear of dismissal Separatist reforms Catalan Statute of September 1932 gave limited autonomy to Catalonia Established a Catalan Parliament, the Generalitat , with legislative power over agriculture, transport, public health and poor relief in Catalonia; other issues remained the preserve of the central government in Madrid One-third of Catalan taxation was under the control of the Catalan Parliament Limitations of the reforms 1931–3 Although the reforms achieved much, they fell short of solving many of the problems they set out to address. The Agrarian Reform Law in its first year only succeeded in resettling 10uni00A0per cent of the 60,000 families it had aimed to help. In large part this was because the Institute of Agrarian Reform was allocated an inadequate 50uni00A0million pesetas (oneuni00A0per cent of the annual budget) with which to carry out the reform, including the compensation payouts. The Law of Obligatory Cultivation was frequently ignored by
Chapter 2: Spanish Civil War 1936–9 81 landlords, in part because they only incurred minimal fines (frequently not exceeding 500uni00A0pesetas) for so doing. Rural labourers continued to suffer considerable hardship, and by the early 1930s, 72uni00A0per cent of those registered unemployed were from agricultural regions. Unemployment also remained a substantial problem in urban areas. Social security benefits provided only limited assistance to industrial workers, and did not cover those who were out of work. The concessions to separatist demands were also highly limited. Catalonia was granted only a very restricted degree of independence, and no provision was made for the Basque country. Political reactions to the reforms 1931–3 The reforms generated criticism from both the extreme left and the conservative right. The government became isolated and weakened as Spain’s politics polarized and it was abandoned by the extreme left and attacked by a strengthened conservative right. In the general election of November 1933, the left-wing coalition government was voted out of power. Opposition from the extreme left The government’s defeat in the November 1933 elections was in significant part due to the loss of support from elements of the more extreme left that had formerly backed the government. These included anarchists and the left-wing faction of the PSOE, which was led by Largo Caballero. To these groups, the government’s reforms did not go far enough to address Spain’s socioeconomic problems. In consequence, their opposition grew. Anarchists abstained from voting rather than give the left-wing parties of the coalition their vote. The PSOE was weakened by divisions caused by criticisms from

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