Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

Dependent variable 32 digestion 226 direct

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dependent variable . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 digestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 direct relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244, 249, 274 displacement reactions . . . . . . . .212
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377 Index dissolving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 244, 255 DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232, 233 double helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 ductility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 dwarf star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 dynamic crosslinking . . . . . . . . . .111 E Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 composition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 source of energy for . . . . . . . . . . 7 temperatures on . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 eclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Einstein, Albert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104, 110 electrical conductor . . . . . . . . . . . 147 electricity static . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 electromagnetic force . . . . . . . . . 264 electron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 energy level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 element creation of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ratios in universe . . . . . . . . . . 362 symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 elliptical galaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 endothermic reaction . . 208, 216, 347 energy activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 and chemical bonds . . . . . . . . 163 and chemical reactions . . . . . 208 and forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 atomic energy levels . . . . . . . 143 change of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 kinetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 nuclear reactions . . . . . . . . . . 214 of color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 photosynthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 storage in fats . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 energy level . . . . . . . . . 143, 145, 165 enzyme definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 luciferin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 equilibrium . . . 84, 107, 184, 277, 280 error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 41 escape velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Europa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 evaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99, 172 evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 exothermic reaction 208, 209, 216, 347 expanding universe . . . . . . . . . . . 360 experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 45 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 blind test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 experimental variable . . . . . . . . . . 39 F Fahrenheit scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 conversion to Celsius scale . . . 59 definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Fahrenheit, Gabriel . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223, 229, 236 partially hydrogenated . . . . . 229 saturated . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229, 236 unsaturated . . . . . . . . . . 229, 236 firefly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 133 floating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 84, 85 fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . . . . . . 237 food chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 action-reaction pairs . . . 292, 293 and acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . 299 buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 definition of . . . . . . . . . . 4, 57, 288 friction . . . . . . . . . . . 268, 269, 271 gravitational . . . . . . . . . . 302, 315
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378 in fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 intermolecular . . . . . . . . . . 96, 145 net force . . . . . . 277, 280, 290, 300 normal force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 of gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275, 276 forced convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 formula definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 volume of rectangular box . . . . 34 weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 foxfire fungus . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 133 free fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 free-body diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 friction . . . . . . 268, 269, 270, 271, 272 G g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 galaxy center of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 discovery of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 types of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Galilei, Galileo . . . . . . . . 19, 312, 330 Galileo spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 gamma decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Ganymede . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 molecular structure . . . . . . . . .94 solubility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 gas planets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 General Electric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 geographic length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Giffard, Henri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 glucose molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 graduated cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 gram (g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 graphs designing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 position vs. time . . . . . . . . . . . 253 reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 relationships of variables . . . . . 30 slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 speed vs. time . . . . . . . . . 255, 256 gravitational force . . . . . . . . 302, 315 gravity . . . . . . . . . . 259, 264, 266, 282 Great Eastern Salt Basin . . . . . . 172 Great Red Spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Great Salt Lake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 alkali metal group . . . . . . . . . 142 Group 2 metals . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 halogen group . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 main group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 noble gas group . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Group 2 metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 H halogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 halogens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Haut, Dr. Roger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 heat conduction . . . . . . . . . . . 107, 108 heat transfer conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Hertzsprung, Ejnar . . . . . . . . . . .342 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram . . .342 Hindenburg blimp . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 historical time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Hodgson, Peter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 hot air balloon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 hot pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 H-R diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342 Hubble Space Telescope . . . . . . . .357 Hubble, Edwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357 Huggins, Sir William . . . . . . . . . .348 hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 165 hydronium ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 hydroxide ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 hypothesis . . . . . 17, 20, 22, 37, 38, 44 I independent variable . . . . . . . . . . .32 inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289, 294, 316 inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 20
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379 Index insoluble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 insulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108, 147 intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 intermolecular forces . . . . . . . 96, 145 International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) . 153 inverse relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
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