synonymous with attitude and emotion. While attitude is an emotion, others argue that satisfaction is an evaluation of the emotion. 3) There are also different conceptualizations of expectation across the EDT studies. Some authors explain expectation as the pre-consumption beliefs about overall performance and operationalize it as anticipated performance. But others explain expectation as beliefs about the level of produce or service attributes, and operationalize, it as either individual beliefs or the summation of such beliefs. To apply ECM to IS context, Bhattacherjee  further argues that IS users’ continuous decisions is similar to consumers’ repurchasing decisions because both decisions: 1) follow an initial (acceptance or purchase) decisions, 2) are influenced by the initial use experience, and 3) can potentially lead to an ex post reversal of the initial decision. However, ECM still predicts the users’ continuance behavior based on extrinsic motivations (i.e., satisfaction and perceived usefulness). Unfortunately, high user satisfaction scores coincide with declining market share  and repeated purchases of a product with a low satisfaction score could occur . Seddon  also argued that “no matter how good a system has been in the past, past benefit is not a sufficient condition for future use; future use must be based on expectations of future benefit.” Therefore, the motivation to continue m-shopping is future benefit instead of consumer perception of usefulness. In m-shopping context, privacy and security are involved with consumers’ benefits. Consumers may put their trust in the machines of m-shopping service with high privacy and security to get benefits via m-shopping. ConfirmationPerceived usefulnessSatisfactionIS continuance intentionFigure 1: Initial ECM (Source: Bhattacherjee ) 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Model and Hypotheses Based on the literature review, our research model was developed as Figure 2 which incorporated trust variable into initial ECM. In electronic markets, two types of uncertainty are system-dependent and transaction-specific uncertainty . The risk of disclosing personal information or credit card numbers publicly during or after consumption may make them lose the confidence in electronic transactions . Trust is defined as ‘a group of beliefs held by a person derived from his or her perceptions about certain attributes’ , and can be used to reduce the uncertainty and complexity of electronic transactions . Therefore, we regarded trust as an intrinsic motivation to determine the m-shopping continuance.
M. C. Hung et al.: An Examination of the Determinants of Mobile Shopping Continuance 31 Perceived UsefulnessConfirmationSatisfactionTrustContinued Intention toward Mobile ShoppingH2H1H3H7H6H4H5H8Figure 2: Research model As Bhattacherjee  regards the IS users’ continuous decisions as consumers’ repurchasing decisions, the m-shopping stages can be explained as same as the purchasing activities. In the purchasing process, consumers’ purchasing activities can be
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