mobility. Let us look at another related aspect; these automobiles need a similar change in the quality of roads, which has not changed accordingly or you can say that it has lagged behind. Resultantly there is a lot of disruption leading to traffic jams, accidents, and pollution. You can also look at the ‘traffic sense’ among the public, be they the drivers, the passengers, the cyclists, or the pedestrians. This lag between the increase in automobiles and the inculcation of traffic sense in public also creates disruption in the system. Causes of cultural change Three factors bring change in the culture of a society. These are: Inventions: The process of creating new cultural elements out of the existing elements. Since the modern man has a comparatively richer reservoir of cultural elements at his disposal, therefore he creates more inventions than the man in the olden times. The modern man does not have to reinvent the wheel; he has to use this wheel, improve upon it and bring something new. Discovery: It is the process of finding that already exists. Diffusion: It means the spread of cultural traits from one society to another. It is the borrowing of culture by one group from another. For purposes of diffusion contact between the two groups or societies is necessary. In the olden times, due to the lack development of means of transportation and communication, contact between different societies was limited. Therefore the diffusion was also limited. Whatever the diffusion took place it was more a result of physical contact. But in the modern times there is a revolution in the means of transportation and communication. Presently people don’t have to be in physical contact with other societies for knowing about each other’s culture and for borrowing from each other. With the help of electronic media people get exposure to other cultures and may like to borrow their cultural traits. With the facilitation of diffusion process cultural change is quite rapid now days. Ethnocentrism The practice of judging other’s culture by the standards of one’s own culture. People consider their own culture as superior to others and apply their standards for evaluating the patterns of behavior of others. The whole judgment is centered on one’s own culture. Xeno-centrism Considering other’s culture as superior to one’s own. Cultural relativism The practice of judging a culture by its own standards; a particular pattern of behavior is right or wrong as it is declared by the people who follow it. Since those people are follow a particular practice, supposedly it might be serving some useful function in that society. Nevertheless, the
same practice may be useful for one group and may be harmful for the other in the same society. A global culture Today, more than ever before, we can observe many of the same cultural practices being followed the world over. We find people wearing jeans, hear the familiar music, and see advertising for many of the same products in different countries. People learn some international language for purposes of communication. Are we moving toward the single global culture?
- Fall '14