them and having them depend on me. I don’t worry about being abandoned or about someone getting close to me. Avoidant I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, others want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. Anxious/Resistant I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away.
Sensitive periods Sensitive period: a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability. – Exposure to specific types of environmental stimulation is critical to healthy development. – For example: in order for kids to be fluent in a native language, infants need to be exposed to speech during first two years of life Brain development during childhood and adolescence Brain Development in Infancy and Early Childhood • Changes in brain development correspond with the development of cognitive abilities through late childhood • The cerebral cortex thickens: – first in the sensory and motor areas – then in regions involved in perception (seeing, hearing, touching, etc.) – eventually higher-order thinking and planning • Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning serve to increase brain functionality. • They strengthen neural connections between nerve cells and weed out unnecessary ones. Stanford prison study Phil Zimbardo (1971) • Young men randomly assigned to role play: Either (1) a prisoner or (2) a prison guard • Was supposed to last for 2 weeks, but had to be shut down after 6 days... Some key terms Social norms - – General rules for a group (big or small; e.g., society vs. classroom) • Usually unwritten and unspoken rules • What are social norms of riding on an elevator? • What would happen if you broke these social norms? Social roles - – Guidelines for specific positions within a group (e.g., student, professor, parent) – Classic empirical example, the Stanford Prison Study - roleplaying gone terribly wrong (Zimbardo, 1971)
Harlow monkey study Importance of Contact Comfort Harry Harlow’s research asked: why do infants’ bond with their mothers? Together, these studies produced groundbreaking empirical evidence for the primacy of the parent-child attachment relationship and the importance of maternal touch in infant development Fluid vs crystallized intelligence
Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a type of intelligence that is used to adapt to new situations and solve new problems without relying on previous knowledge. – Tests of Gf involve problems that do not require prior experience or specialized knowledge, such as pattern recognition and solving geometric puzzles.
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- Social anxiety disorder