Fundamentals-of-Microelectronics-Behzad-Razavi.pdf

640 136 short circuit protection 640 137 heat

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 13.6 Short-Circuit Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 13.7 Heat Dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 13.7.1 Emitter Follower Power Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 13.7.2 Push-Pull Stage Power Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 13.7.3 Thermal Runaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 13.8 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 13.8.1 Efficiency of Emitter Follower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 13.8.2 Efficiency of Push-Pull Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 13.9 Power Amplifier Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 14 Analog Filters 656 14.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 14.1.1 Filter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 14.1.2 Classification of Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 14.1.3 Filter Transfer Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 14.1.4 Problem of Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 14.2 First-Order Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 14.3 Second-Order Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667 14.3.1 Special Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 14.3.2 RLC Realizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 14.4 Active Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 14.4.1 Sallen and Key Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 14.4.2 Integrator-Based Biquads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681 14.4.3 Biquads Using Simulated Inductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 14.5 Approximation of Filter Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 14.5.1 Butterworth Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690 14.5.2 Chebyshev Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 15 Digital CMOS Circuits 707 15.1 General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
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xxviii 15.1.1 Static Characterization of Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 15.1.2 Dynamic Characterization of Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 15.1.3 Power-Speed Trade-Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 15.2 CMOS Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 15.2.1 Initial Thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 15.2.2 Voltage Transfer Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 15.2.3 Dynamic Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 15.2.4 Power Dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 15.3 CMOS NOR and NAND Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 15.3.1 NOR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 15.3.2 NAND Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 A Introduction to SPICE 746 A.1 Simulation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 A.2 Types of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 A.2.1 Operating Point Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 A.2.2 Transient Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 A.2.3 DC Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752 A.3 Element Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 A.3.1 Current Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 A.3.2 Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 A.3.3 Bipolar Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 A.3.4 MOSFETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758 A.4 Other Elements and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 A.4.1 Dependent Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 A.4.2 Initial Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
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BR Wiley/Razavi/ Fundamentals of Microelectronics [Razavi.cls v. 2006] June 30, 2007 at 13:42 1 (1) 1 Introduction to Microelectronics Over the past five decades, microelectronics has revolutionized our lives. While beyond the realm of possibility a few decades ago, cellphones, digital cameras, laptop computers, and many other electronic products have now become an integral part of our daily affairs. Learning microelectronics can be fun. As we learn how each device operates, how devices comprise circuits that perform interesting and useful functions, and how circuits form sophisti- cated systems, we begin to see the beauty of microelectronics and appreciate the reasons for its explosive growth. This chapter gives an overview of microelectronics so as to provide a context for the material presented in this book. We introduce examples of microelectronic systems and identify important circuit “functions” that they employ. We also provide a review of basic circuit theory to refresh the reader’s memory. 1.1 Electronics versus Microelectronics The general area of electronics began about a century ago and proved instrumental in the radio and radar communications used during the two world wars. Early systems incorporated “vacuum tubes,” amplifying devices that operated with the flow of electrons between plates in a vacuum chamber. However, the finite lifetime and the large size of vacuum tubes motivated researchers to seek an electronic device with better properties.
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