Reflects social hierarchy; only discusses elite houses BUT: good architecture = secure, healthy communities Alberti: architect = elite, but should provide social welfare Magnificence and generosity Grand projects by elites: gifts to the public; good PR Renaissance Florence: elegant buildings expected Concept of ‘magnificence’: moral duty; public service Serlio: Houses for all Serlio’s Book 6: Habitations for All Levels of People (1967) Domestic architecture typology; grouped by income level Includes houses for rich and poor (first time in arch. book) Buildings and morality Architecture: reflection of social structure ‘Democratic’ classicism, equality and slavery Architecture, labor, and society: intertwined Add to Ghirardo: Who builds what for whom? Ruskin, ornament and slavery John Ruskin: laws of architecture about morality, ethics The Stones of Venice (1853): beauty depends on how you build Ornament = difference between ‘architecture’ and ‘building’ Classical ornament = bad; ‘invented to make plagiarists of its architects, slaves of its workmen, sybarites of its inhabitants’ Good ornament and good architecture must be GOTHIC
The gothic and freedom True Gothic = ‘outward forms’ vs. ‘internal elements’ Authentic Gothicornament: builders’ ‘Mental tendencies’: o Northern: ‘Mountain brotherhood of cathedral and alp’ o Freedom: craftsmen can interpret models creatively Architectural beauty derives from, supports social freedom Ruskin: ‘The function of ornament is to make you happy’ Process v. Product Architectural style matters less than fabrication method Industrial era: created by craftsmen, or assembled from kit? Ruskin’s solution = change architectural taste; nostalgia Building the future Modernism: architecture should advance change, not halt it Social & aesthetic idealism: new style creates a new world 1920s Europe: Modernism and progressive, left-wing politics Factories, efficiency, and radically redefined institutions Modernism and reform Post- Revolutionary Russia: build the Socialist state ‘Constructivism’: celebrates industry, new society Radical, visionary images of an idealized future reality Constructing Soviet values Workers’ clubs: connect socialization and labor Housing and collectivism: group vs. family identity New apartment buildings as ‘social condensers’ Erase bourgeois values through communal living Base and Superstructure Stalin’s 1931 style switch: ideals v. control Modernists called ‘Bourgeois,’ not Bolshevik Style & public perception: always propaganda? Venturi and Scott Brown Denise Scott Brown (b. 1931): Architect and urbanist; studies sociology of American vernacular
Venturi: drawing from architecture’s ‘high’ tradition Scott Brown: learn from the everyday environment Fascinated by Las Vegas; brings Venturi & Yale students Vegas and Utopia Take the American city seriously, study its structure Urban landscape: wide roads, big signs, parking lots Access/communication system ‘read’ from a moving car ‘Good’ environment? Voluntarily chosen by the public
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- Fall '11