The nervous system extends throughout the body the

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The Nervous System Extends throughout the Body The various nerves of the body are divided into two distinct systems: Somatic nervous system —nerves that interconnect the brain and the major muscles and sensory systems of the body Autonomic nervous system —nerves that connect to the viscera (internal organs)
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Peripheral Nervous System Cranial & Spinal Nerves Glands, organs & smooth muscles
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Somatic Nervous System The nerves of the somatic nervous system form two anatomical groups: Cranial nerves —innervate the head, neck, and visceral organs directly from the brain Spinal nerves —connect to the spinal cord
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Cranial Nerves : 12 pairs that serve the head & neck Somatic Nervous System
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Somatic Nervous System Spinal Nerves : 31 pairs that serve the torso, arms & legs Afferent nerve = carries sensory information to the CNS Efferent nerve = carries motor commands away from the CNS
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Autonomic Nervous System The autonomic nervous system is the main system for controlling the body’s organs. Two major divisions: Sympathetic nervous system has axons that innervate the sympathetic ganglia—small clusters of neurons outside the CNS. Sympathetic innervation prepares the body for action— the “fight-or-flight” response. The parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and recuperate. Parasympathetic neurons extend longer distances from the CNS to the parasympathetic ganglia. Parasympathetic ganglia are usually close to the organ they innervate. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems have different effects on organs due to different neurotransmitters .
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Summary Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Structure Function Somatic : Cranial Nerves Sensory/motor info between brain & head/neck Somatic : Spinal Nerves Sensory/motor info between spinal cord & rest of body Autonomic : Sympathetic Parasympathetic Input to glands and organs
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