Forms and Functions of Plants and animals mango or often thin membranes orange

Forms and functions of plants and animals mango or

This preview shows page 34 - 36 out of 40 pages.

Forms and Functions of Plants and animals mango) or often thin membranes (orange). In dry fruits pericarp, is thin, dry, papery or thick and woody but not divided into three regions. Sometimes along with ovary other floral parts like thalamus, receptacle or calyx may develop as part of fruit, such fruits are-called false fruits. e.g. apple, pear (thalamus), fig (receptacle). Parthenocarpic fruit -It is a fruit that develops without fertilization. It is seedless or has non-viable seeds e.g, banana, grapes. Horticulturists are producing such fruits artificially. 7.5.1 Kinds of fruits - There are three basic types 1. Simple fruit - Develops from single mono-to polycarpellary, syncarpous (fused) ovary e.g, pea, tomato. 2. Aggregate fruit - Collection (etaerio) of simple fruits or fruitlets on same thalamus developing from polycarpellary, apocarpous (free carpels) ovary e.g. Calotropis and Ranunculus . 3. Composite or multiple fruit - Fruit develops from a number of flowers juxtaposed together or from inflorescence e.g. mulberry, pineapple. Table7.17 Major categories of fruits (i) Legume - pea, bean, groundnut Dehiscent (ii) Siliqua - mustard (iii) Follicle - Calotropis Dry (iv) Capsule - cotton, poppy, ‘bhindi’ (i) Caryopsis - wheat, rice Indehiscent (ii) Nut - almond, cashewnut 1. Simple (iii) Cypsella - sunflower, marigold (iv) Samara - yam, hiptage (i) Drupe - mango, coconut (ii) Berry - tomato, banana, date palm Fleshy (iii) Pepo - cucumber, watermelon (iv) Hesperidium - lemon, orange (v) Pome - apple, pear (i) Etaerio (cluster) of drupes - Raspberry 2. Aggregate (ii) Etaerio of achenes - Strawberry, rose (iii) Etaerio of berries - Custardapple (iv) Etaerio of follicles - periwinkle, larkspur 3. Multiple or (i) Sorosis - pineapple, mulberry, jackfruit composite (ii) Syconus - Fig, peepal
Image of page 34
Shoot System BIOLOGY 190 Notes MODULE - 2 Forms and Functions of Plants and animals Table 7.18 Common Fruits and their edible parts. Names Types Edible Parts 1. Banana Berry – simple, fleshy Mesocarp and endocarp 2. Apple Pome – simple, fleshy Fleshy thalamus 3. Coconut Fibrous Drupe – simple, fleshy Endosperm 4. Custard Apple Etaerio of Berries – aggregate Pericarp 5. Date Palm Berry – simple, fleshy Pericarp 6. Cashew Nut Nut – simple, dry indehiscent Peduncle and Cotyledons 7. Mango Drupe – simple, fleshy Mesocarp B. Orange Hesperidium – simple, fleshy Juicy hairs from endocarp, 9. Tomato Berry – simple, fleshy Pericarp and Placentae 10. Pear Pome – simple, fleshy Fleshy thalamus 11. Pineapple Sorosis – composite Outer portion of receptacle, bracts and perianth 12. Fig Syconous – composite Fleshy receptacle 13. Litchi Nut – simple Juicy aril 14. Wheat Caryopsis – simple dry indehiscent Starchy endosperm 15. Strawberry Etaerio of achenes- aggregate Succulent thalamus INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.14 l. Define Fruit. ............................................................................................................................ 2. Give two examples of false fruits. ............................................................................................................................ 3. What is the fruit wall known as which is formed by the ovary wall?
Image of page 35
Image of page 36

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 40 pages?

  • Winter '17
  • raye
  • monocot leaf, dicot leaf

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture