feelings of depression and negativity. Occupation also played a large role in contributing to PTSD development. It seems fair to say that an infantry man will see more combat than a military cook. However, it is important to note that anyone in the military can experience combat and they are all trained to fight. In reality though, infantry men and other combat related billets will experience more traumatic events than someone that is not in a combat related billet. The length of time and number of deployments is also a contributing factor. If a veteran is deployed multiple times over the course of a few years he has a greater chance of being exposed to trauma than someone that isn’t deployed often. It is also important to take into consideration the veteran’s personal life. It is possible that veterans are missing important events in their home life including the birth of a child, the death of a family member, or their best friend’s wedding. These circumstances are very likely to weigh heavy on an individual’s mind and potential leading to feelings of sadness. In this case, if a traumatic event did occur it is possible that the event compiled with their sadness about life situations can lead to PTSD. It has been concluded from this article that the most attention should be given to the role of personnel and environment variables in predicting PTSD (Xue et al., 2015). Treatment Options There are numerous treatments available for PTSD so it would be beneficial to determine which are the most effective in veterans. Sharpless and Barber (2011) evaluated psychological and pharmacological approaches to PTSD in veterans. Psychotherapies such as Prolonged Exposure (PE), Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) were found to be the most effective in treating veterans. Relaxation training and stress
PTSD IN VETERANS 6 inoculation training were found to be far less effective (Sharpless & Barber, 2011). PE utilizes imaginal exposure, processing of imaginal exposure, and relaxation training focused on slow breathing techniques. Sessions are conducted over an 8-15 week period and each session lasts 90 minutes (Sharpless & Barber, 2011). CPT involves 12 weekly, 60 minute, individual sessions. The goal is to reduce PTSD through emotional processing and cognitive restructuring of trauma- related emotions and thoughts (Schumm, Walter, Bartone, & Chad, 2015). This form of treatment is more intense than others. EDMR attempts to use desensitization and reprocessing by having the veteran imagine distressing images while tracking finger movements by the therapist (Sharpless &Barber, 2011). Propranolol (Inderal), a beta-adrenergic antagonist (beta-blocker), is the most effective medication for reducing symptoms of PTSD. In the end authors found that PE is the psychotherapy of choice. Many studies note that antidepressants such a Zoloft and Paxil are considered first- line choices in treating PTSD (Schumm, Walter, Bartone, & Chad, 2015). It is also noted that paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine are the most promising medications used to treat PTSD symptoms (Sharpless & Barber, 2011). It is also important to note that some of these
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