Document that is issued by a gov’t (US gov’t) b. Grants to an inventer the exclusive rights to an invention for a limited period of time c. (US patent lasts for 17 years) d. allows inventer to protect his invention---nobody else can make his invention e. US patent office- between 1790-1800-only a few patents f. 1850-60—SO MANY MORE patents IX. Telegraph- Samuel F.B. Morse (also invented the Morse Code) a. What hath god wrought? b. There were a lot of wires set up in US- revolutionized all sorts of things- communication c. Telegraph is beginnings of revolutionized forms of communication X. Had not been sufficient capital to be invested by colonial times- many things during industrial revolution required a lot of capital- people were wary of investing their money- not fully protetected legally in case their investment went poorly a. Investments set up like London Company (all got together and pool their money) b. Limited liability hasn’t been invented yet
c. So at this time (before 1830s-40s) people worried about investing because they don’t want to get sued for everything- all life savings, home, starving children d. Limited liability- most you can lose is the amount you invested- allowing corporations to have this and more people are willing to spend the money XI. Workers/Factory system- owners madea lot of money, workers got very little money and had terrible conditions a. How can the workers get better conditions- try to go through poltical process- convince city or state or national gov’t to pass laws to protect workers (true that anumber of people get very involved in this process in 20s and 30s- year of Jacksonian democracy (common man gets the votes))- i. In beginning- formed small workers parties- realized that wouldn’t work so they joined the democrats (wanted higher wages, less hours, public education for children, and an end to imprisonment for debt in states where that was the case) ii. Working through the political process didn’t get the workers too far iii. Greatest gain came when Presidnet Martin Van Bueren in 1840 established the 10 hour day- cant be forced to work for more than 10 hours “federal employees involved in public works” b. Other way that workers can try to make things better- approaching the boss directly i. Workers are replaceable (unskilled workers)- boss can just fire people if workers want more ii. Workers should ban together and form Unions- in most places people were forbidden by law to form labor unions because this was considered a criminal conspiracy iii. Strike- usually replaced by strike breakers (scabs- willing to work even though other ppl are on strike) iv. Labor only had sporatic gains c. Panic of 1819 really hurt too d. Legal victory- labor unions are not illegal conspiracies as long as their motives were honorable and peaceful (massachussetts said this) i. Still workers made very little headway pre-civil war e. Subset of worker- women i. Home- clothes, butter, cheese—factories make these things so much quicker ii. Women’s role in economics in home is undermined by new situation iii.
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