Along with the aristocracy churches powerfully shaped

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Along with the aristocracy, churches powerfully shaped the baroque style too; use of the emotional and theatrical qualities of art o Secular and sacred were very similar in style Baroque Music Early baroque (1600-1640): homophonic texture Middle baroque (1640-1690): major and minor scales o New importance of instrumental music (the violin family) o Violin was very popular o Specify instrument for composition Late baroque (1690-1750): many aspects of harmony arose in this period o Polyphonic texture – main musical texture of the baroque period o Instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time o Bach o Handel Characteristics of (late) Baroque Music Unity of mood: one basic mood – affections – if a joyful mood continues throughout the entirety of the piece o Exception in vocal music Rhythm: continuity of rhythm Melody: continuity of melody o Melodic sequence Dynamic: continuity of dynamics o Terraced dynamics (alternation between loud and soft) suddenly went from loud to soft (or vice versa) was not gradual o Harpsichord Texture: predominantly polyphonic o Exception in vocal music Chords and Basso Continuo: new emphasis on chords and the bass part – basso continuo (continuous bass) o Basso continuo – usually played by harpsichord Improvise chords in addition to the continuous bass line o Soprano and bass lines were usually the most important part in the polyphonic texture Words and Music: continuous use of word painting The Baroque Orchestra Developed the genera orchestra Smaller than modern orchestra – mostly the string instruments
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Instrumental arrangement was flexible and varied o Depended on what kind of music they wanted to create The most important parts: basso continuo and upper strings Baroque Forms Many baroque compositions include movements that contrast Each movement sounded very complete and sounded like it could be its own piece but was part of a bigger piece The mood and character differed Usually a pause between the movements o Example: The first movement – fast and energetic The second movement – slow and solemn The third movement – quick, light, and humorous Music in Baroque Society Most music was written for specific demands that came mainly from churches and aristocratic courts Usually each court had their own musicians, opera, music director servants or aristocracy Composers were an integral part of baroque society, working for chorus, churches, towns , and commercial opera houses The Concerto Grosso and Ritornello Form Concerto grosso a small group of soloists is pitted against a larger group of players called the tut (all) o Usually between two and four soloists play with anywhere from eight to twenty or more musicians for the tutti o Tutti – consists mainly of string instruments with a harpsichord as part of the basso continuo The first and last movements of concerti grossi are often in ritornello form o
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  • Fall '19
  • Music, Baroque music, Hector Berlioz, Romantic music

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