Reformchange in india o the provocation the indian

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coming to the petrified realms of the Inner Asian khans.” Reform/Change in India o The provocation – the Indian mutiny – 1857 o Events leading up 1793 – permanent settlement Loss of monopoly Forced production of indigo and other products Peasant rights eroded as are those of landlords Revenue demands o Before the mutiny, utilitarian political ideas about bringing a new kind of civilization rather than the Orientalist admiration for Indian culture o 1857 – different than many past rebellions because varying strains of resistance/revolt actually all work at the same time for once, and hence gains a large geographical scale o What is the mutiny? Mutiny, revolution, nationalist movement Cartridges, army troops – emperor – Oudh – Martha Revolt – Agrarian revolt o Hardened racial animosity o Cost 50 million pounds, 500 millions rupees to quell the revolt o 2 years
o Crown take over formally in 1858 Army restructured Taxation revamped They also work to make India more dependent on Britain Leave Princely states alon o Extraterritoriality – Ilbert Bill 1883-84 o Stay away from Christianity o English school system for elites o But also the beginnings of a nationalist movement from the 1870s Population movement o British empire, like most European empires, had two basic kinds of colonies (subject colonies and settler colonies) o Later add protectorates, countries which pledge allegiance in return for protection (like India’s native princely states) o Subject colonies are typically a structure in which local elites are co-opted, or tricked into giving up power to a few Europeans There are always a few European settlers in the subject colonies, but they were far outnumbered – generally return to Britain Subject colonies have governors and system of local official (white Europeans) others a Resident or Consul (protectorates) Crown colonies, not considered fit for self rule, hence a royal governor and direct authority of crown, first applied to Napoleonic era colonies (Ceylon, Trinidad) o Settler colonies work differently – geography Settler colonies exist in places where the temperate climate and similarity to Europe allow mass transfer of people, animals and plants from Europe, where they often push out what is already there If there are previous occupants they must be eliminated (US, Australia, Namibia) otherwise you get an incomplete settlement which makes for an ugly decolonization (Kenya, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Algeria, South Africa) 50-90% of native population usually gone within 100-150 years of contact Land reform Most of these settler colonies are treated very differently legally once they reach a certain size, Britain tends to acquiesce to demand of representation, move towards self- rule Example of Americas teaches British that some home rule can act as a safety valve and a better protection of your investment (Dominion of Canada 1867, Australia/NZ 1850s-1900, South Africa 1910) Export of population
o 1815-1914, at least 20 million people leave Britain (including Ireland) o Part of larger Great Migration – largest population move of world history to that time. In 400 years of the slave trade to that point – 11 million

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