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But formal political independence alone will not

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But formal political independence alone will not ensure the genuineindependence of the African peoples, and their equality amongst the nations of theworld. The former colonies remain tied by a thousand bonds to their former owners.Through the "British Commonwealth" and the "French Community" powerful pressuresare exerted to influence them and ensure their continued adherence to political,diplomatic, military and economic systems of Western imperialism. There is a new"scramble for Africa" in which United States, West German and Japanese financecapitalists are vying with the older imperialists to extend their investments and theireconomic stranglehold over African territories and resources. The imperialists all striveto retard the development of national economies and national industries in the Africancountries, through such instruments as the European Common Market they strive tokeep them backward, in a position of suppliers of raw material and cheap labor forimperialism. These plans of neocolonialism are the greatest threat to the realindependence and development of the newly emerged African States.The young African states need to abolish illiteracy, backwardness and economicdependence. They need to "Africanise" their civil services and administrations, rapidly totrain personnel from amongst their own people to administer and develop theircountries. They need radical land reform, to transform and improve African agricultureand greatly raise the desperately low living standards of the masses. They need rapidindustrialization and economic development, in order to overcome the terrible heritageleft behind by colonialism, and to catch up with the advanced countries of the world. Inthese aims the young African Republics are tremendously assisted by the generous andunconditional aid extended to them by the Soviet Union and other countries of thesocialist world system. Such aid is rendered upon the principles of strict equality andtrue brotherly friendship. It aims to lay the basis for the industrialization of undevelopedcountries - the foundation stone of true independence and equality - and to traincompetent specialists in the hundred fields which the new Africa so urgently requires.Only if they can achieve a social transformation, a fast rate of economic andsocial development, can the African countries ensure genuine independence andequality in the world family of nations, and higher standards of life, health and culture fortheir people. In their drive towards these goals the African peoples are faced with thechoice between capitalist and socialist paths. More and more, the revolutionary workersand peasants, the radical intellectual youth of Africa are turning towards the socialistpath. They have seen the evils of capitalism at work in their midst, its greed andwastefulness of life and resources; its ruthless contempt for the dignity and value of thehuman being. They have learnt of the tremendous rate of development which socialism

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