treated the same in every other way; Ex) real drug vs placebo; drug vs active placebo; drug vs no drug-Blinding: keeping participants and experimenter (if double-blind) in the dark about the manipulation; avoids expectation or placebo effects and experimenter effectsStatistics-Using mathematical procedures to organize, summarize, and interpret data-Descriptive Statistics: organizing and summarizing data; measures of central tendency: mean, median mode; symmetrical or asymmetrical distributionmeasures of dispersion: variance and standard deviation-Inferential Statistics: interpreting dataSignificant testing; the level of statistical significance within a studyWeeding out if the data showed a difference due to chanceIf it’s a very small probability that it was due to chance, then its statistically significant in the differenceConvention: 5% or less (p < 0.05)-Extraneous Variables: variables (other than the independent variable) that can influence the outcome of the experiment; Can cause confounding of variables: when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their effects from one another-Avoiding Confounds:Random Sampling: selection at random from the target population to get the sample that will participate in your study; this ensures that everyone in the target population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sampleRandom Assignment:assigning participants randomly to the experimental groups or conditions; this ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being in and group or condition in the studyOrder Effects-The order in which subjects receive the experimental treatments can affect how they respond to those treatment18-09-18 Lecture 4
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Counterbalancing -Vary the order of conditions across participants or groupsGeneralizability -Can we generalize from our study:A larger populationOther contextsOther age groupsOther cultures-Beware of statistics Ethics of Studying Humans*STUDY FOR EXAMChapter 3: Genes, Evolution, and EnvironmentKey Topics:-Role of evolution and genes in behavior-Basic genetics-How behavior can evolve-Courtship and mating behavior-Limitation and misapplications of evolutionary theoryDefine:-Evolutionary Psychology:looks for commonalities in human behavior, cognition, and emotion-Behavioral Genetics:looks for how genes interact with environments to create individual differencesIs it Nature, or is it Nurture?-Nature vs Nurture is an outdated view-A very complex interaction whereby-Genes affect experiences-Experiences affect gene expression (epigenetics) What is a Gene?-Section of a chromosomes made up of DNA that codes for a particular protein-Almost everything has some genetic basis, but almost nothing has ‘a’ gene for it-Most traits are polygenicEvolution and Genes-The human genome is the product of adaptation to the environment (physical and social) over many millenniaHuman Nature (Human Universals)-Innate human characteristics (pg 80):
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