treated the same in every other way Ex real drug vs placebo drug vs active

Treated the same in every other way ex real drug vs

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treated the same in every other way; Ex) real drug vs placebo; drug vs active placebo; drug vs no drug - Blinding : keeping participants and experimenter (if double-blind) in the dark about the manipulation; avoids expectation or placebo effects and experimenter effects Statistics - Using mathematical procedures to organize, summarize, and interpret data - Descriptive Statistics: organizing and summarizing data; measures of central tendency: mean, median mode; symmetrical or asymmetrical distribution measures of dispersion: variance and standard deviation - Inferential Statistics: interpreting data Significant testing; the level of statistical significance within a study Weeding out if the data showed a difference due to chance If it’s a very small probability that it was due to chance, then its statistically significant in the difference Convention: 5% or less ( p < 0.05) - Extraneous Variables: variables (other than the independent variable) that can influence the outcome of the experiment; Can cause confounding of variables: when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their effects from one another - Avoiding Confounds: Random Sampling: selection at random from the target population to get the sample that will participate in your study; this ensures that everyone in the target population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample Random Assignment: assigning participants randomly to the experimental groups or conditions; this ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being in and group or condition in the study Order Effects - The order in which subjects receive the experimental treatments can affect how they respond to those treatment 18-09-18 Lecture 4
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Counterbalancing - Vary the order of conditions across participants or groups Generalizability - Can we generalize from our study: A larger population Other contexts Other age groups Other cultures - Beware of statistics Ethics of Studying Humans *STUDY FOR EXAM Chapter 3: Genes, Evolution, and Environment Key Topics: - Role of evolution and genes in behavior - Basic genetics - How behavior can evolve - Courtship and mating behavior - Limitation and misapplications of evolutionary theory Define: - Evolutionary Psychology: looks for commonalities in human behavior, cognition, and emotion - Behavioral Genetics: looks for how genes interact with environments to create individual differences Is it Nature, or is it Nurture? - Nature vs Nurture is an outdated view - A very complex interaction whereby - Genes affect experiences - Experiences affect gene expression (epigenetics) What is a Gene? - Section of a chromosomes made up of DNA that codes for a particular protein - Almost everything has some genetic basis, but almost nothing has ‘a’ gene for it - Most traits are polygenic Evolution and Genes - The human genome is the product of adaptation to the environment (physical and social) over many millennia Human Nature (Human Universals) - Innate human characteristics (pg 80):
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Infant reflexes; ex. the moro reflex
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