14 15 Thomas Hobbes 1588 1679 English Political Philosopher English Civil War

14 15 thomas hobbes 1588 1679 english political

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14 15 Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 English Political Philosopher English Civil War, 1642-1651 16
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11/4/19 5 The State of Nature (= imagine no government) Humans are roughly equal in body and mind If you create wealth on your own, a larger force of people can seize it from you Just to preserve yourself, you must subdue as many others as you can Humans are motivated by Competition (greed, gain), diffidence (distrust, security) and glory (outranking, reputation) “Without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war” 17 No government over individuals resembles no government over countries = state of WAR “In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth, no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea, no commodious building, no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force, no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time, no arts, no letters, no society, and, which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” 18 Walking Dead , Season 5, Episode 11 Maggie and Sasha run into a pleasant stranger, Aaron. They draw their guns on Aaron, and take him back to the rest of the team, who are hiding out in an abandoned barn. Aaron says he has come to them because he wants to invite everyone to join up with the nearby community of Alexandria. The team wants to trust him, but can’t. Why is he there? What does he really want? He says he has two cars stashed nearby that they can drive to Alexandria. The team suspects a setup. Rick stays behind to guard a subdued Aaron, and a patrol of five goes out to see whether there really are two cars and whether Alexandrians are waiting in ambush. 19 ”If it’s someone like us, we should be afraid of them.” 20
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11/4/19 6 Each is tempted to war But peace is better than war for all In the state of nature, every one has a right to everything, even to one another’s body (to harm and kill) Every one ought to seek peace, but if there is none then may use the means of war Peace: A man be willing, when others are so too , to lay down this right to all things , and be contented with with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself” Those who seek peace are obliged to transfer to a third party those rights that hinder the peace of humankind 21 Social Contract “Before the names of just and unjust can have place, there must be some coercive power to compel men equally to the performance of their covenants, by the terror of some punishment greater than the benefit they expect by the breach of their covenant, ...and such power there is none before the erection of a Commonwealth .” ( Commonwealth = State ) 22 Formation of a Commonwealth Humans “naturally love liberty and dominion over others” The only way to peace is for each to transfer
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