incidentally, these causes of poverty are not direct outcome of any natural resources production as witnessed in oil village communities. In sum, the above research tries to fully grasp the dynamics of the poverty situation in the oil village communities and how such situation manifests into violent conflicts. This the research has done by looking beyond poverty as a single causal factor but including other factors such as unemployment and environmental issues. 6.2 Petrobusiness: Grievances, Greed and Criminality To answer the second part of the study’s research question 1; interviews, focus group discussions, observation and documentary reviews such as newspapers, reports and research findings were used. The investigation focused on examining the extent, if any, to which oil resources contributed to issues of grievance, greed, criminality and militancy in oil village communities. This will thereby establishing the relationship between the new socio-economic conditions, and the new culture of greed and grievance in fueling violent conflicts in oil village communities.
173 6.2. 1. Grievances due to ‘underdevelopment’ 41 and Changes cause by oil activities These study findings reveal a pattern of intricate relationship between underdevelopment and the reaction of oil village communities to negative oil activities. Expressing the height of the underdevelopment in these oil village communities, A.M.O (Constitutional right lawyer) queried the situation in this manner: “The oil communities over time feel very strongly that they are highly marginalised. Marginalised in the sense that if you go to the oil communities, especially the ones in the river line areas where the bulk of the oil comes from, if you see their standard of living, it is very low and poor. They have no potable water to drink, they wash, bath, and drink from polluted streams. A few kilometres away, you have boat houses, where oil companies, their staff and security men, all will be on. They have 24 hours power supply and drink bottled water. Oil communities see all these. The oil companies enjoy these amenities and still drill their oil away, and you think they will not one day rise up against these oppressors” (A.M-O, Male,C/L, Warri, Interview; Dec2007). As observed during my fieldwork, the situation of underdevelopment or lack of development was frequently cited by the various oil village communities as reasons to why they resort to violence. For the genuine agitators, the situation represents living in penury in midst of plenty (Field note, Gbaramatu, Nov.2007). Explaining about the situation in her village, a young unemployed graduated who took part in the 2 nd FGD, described her village in this form: “My village is wired for electricity but no electricity as it is not connected to the national grid. We have a pipe-borne water that that was commission since ten years ago, but has never worked.
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