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In addition, further perspectives that emerge from the individual contextof the development project can be created as need be.Define validation directivesfor each perspective.During perspective-based validation, each auditor is assigned a per-spective (at the proper point in time) from which she reads and validatesthe requirement. For each perspective defined, detailed instructions forperforming the validation should be laid down because the auditor might
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7.5Requirements Validation Techniques101not be familiar with all relevant details of her assigned perspective. It isadvisable to associate questions with each validation instruction that mustbe answered by the content of the requirements or by the auditor after shehas read the requirement, respectively. In addition, validation instructionscan be amended with a checklist that summarizes the most important con-tent aspects that ought to be addressed by a requirement with regard to theappropriate perspective.Follow-upDuring the course of the follow-up to a perspective-based reading ses-sion, the results of the chosen perspective are analyzed and consolidated.On the one hand, the results of the perspective-based reading containanswers to the predefined questions, and on the other hand, open issuesthat the auditors noticed while reading may be present. The consolidationcan be done as a group effort, similarly to a review.Support of other techniquesPerspective-based reading can be both an independent technique forrequirements validation and a support technique for other validation tech-niques, such as inspections or reviews of requirements documents bymeans of perspective-based reading.7.5.5Validation through PrototypesRequirements validation by means of prototypes allows auditors to expe-rience the requirements and to try them out. Experiencing requirementsdirectly through prototypes [Jones 1998] is the most effective method toidentify errors in requirements. Stakeholders can try out the prototype andcompare their own idea of how the system ought to be implemented withthe prototype at hand and thereby find discrepancies between their ideasand the current implementation.Evolutionary vs. throw-away prototypesDepending on the further use of the prototype, one can distinguishbetween throw-away prototypes and evolutionary prototypes [Sommer-ville 2007]. Throw-away prototypes are not maintained once they havebeen used. Evolutionary prototypes are developed with the goal to bedeveloped further and improved in later steps. In contrast to throw-awayprototypes, implementation plays a much more significant role here.Therefore, the effort to create evolutionary prototypes is much higher.Selection of relevant requirementsBefore a prototype can be implemented, the requirements that shall bevalidated through the prototype must be selected. The set of requirementsto be validated is limited by development resources (e.g., time, money,etc.) that can be allocated for validation. For example, a selection criterioncan be the criticality of a requirement.
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