Metals silver most metal compounds are too toxic to

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Metals (Silver) – Most metal compounds are too toxic to be used medically. Silver sulfadiazine is used in topical dressings to prevent infection of burns. Some metal compounds are used to prevent microbial growth in industrial processes. Ozone – This is unstable form of oxygen readily breaks down to an ineffective form. Used to disinfect drinking water and wastewater. Peroxygens (Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid ) - Reading biodegradable and less toxic than traditional alternatives. The effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide as an antiseptic is limited because the enzyme catalase breaks it down. Peracetic acid is a more potent germicide than hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is used to sterilize containers for aseptically packaged juices and milk. Peracetic acid is widely used to disinfect and sterilize medical devices. Phenolic Compounds (Triclosan and Hexachlorophene) – Wide range of activity, reasonable cost, remains effective in the presence of detergents and organic contaminants, leaves an active antimicrobial residue. Triclosan is used in a variety of products. Hexachlorophene is highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus, but its use is limited because it can case neurological damage. Quaternary Ammonium Compound (Benzalkonium Chloride and Cetylpyridinium Chloride) – Non- toxic enough to be used on food preparation surfaces. Inactivated by anionic soaps and detergents. Widely used to disinfect inanimate objects and to preserve non-food substances. CHAPTER 6: Microbial Metabolism: Fueling Cell Growth Eduard Buchner – showed that crushed yeast cells could convert sugar to ethanol and CO 2 Metabolism – Sum total of all the enzymatic chemical reactions in a cell. Catabolism – Metabolic processes that harvest energy released during the breakdown of compounds such as glucose, using it to synthesize ATP. Anabolism – Metabolic processes that synthesize and assemble the subunits of macromolecules, using energy of ATP; biosynthesi s. Energy – The capacity to do work. Photosynthetic – Pertaining to photsynthesis, the process of using energy of light to synthesize organic compounds from CO 2. Chemoorganotrophs – Organisms that harvest energy by oxidizing organic chemicals.
Exergonic – Describes a chemical reaction that releases energy because the starting compounds have more free energy than the products. Endergonic – Describes a chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy because the products have more free energy than the starting compounds. Metabolic Pathway – Series of sequential chemical reactions that are a part of metabolism. Enzyme – A molecule, usually a protein, that functions as a catalyst, speeding up a biological reaction. Substrate – Substance on which an enzyme acts to form products. Surface on which an organism will grow. Activation Energy – Initial energy required to break a chemical bond. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – The energy currency of cells. Hydrolysis of the bonds between its phosphate groups can be used to power endergonic (energy-consuming) reactants.

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