Therefore this evaluation study attempts to fill the

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Therefore, this evaluation study attempts to fill the gap in the literature on the efficacy of the CTI Workbook, specifically investigating the effect of a cognitive behaviorally-based workbook intervention on college students’ skills to effectively reframe dysfunctional career thoughts. In the process, it is hoped that more general information on effective instruction related to cognitive reframing skills will also be gained. To achieve these goals, this paper will first briefly review the relevant theoretical and empirical literature and state the hypothesis of interest. Next, the method of investigation will be outlined, including a description of participants, instrumentation, and study design and procedure. Then, results will be presented and the paper will close with a discussion of study findings, their limitations, and resulting implications. Review of the Literature This section of the paper will review two theories underlying the CTI and Workbook; cognitive theory and cognitive information processing theory of career decision-making. Also the
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Workbook 6 literature on the efficacy of interventions associated with each theory will be summarized. Furthermore, a model for evaluating the effectiveness of reframed dysfunctional thoughts based in both clinical experience and the theoretical literature will be introduced. Cognitive Theory and Related Interventions Assumptions . A basic assumption of cognitive theory is that individuals use information processing to represent themselves and the world in cognitive organizational structures known as schemata (Bartlett, 1958). These schemata, which represent individuals’ beliefs or assumptions about themselves and the world, yield the automatic thoughts of consciousness, which interact with affect and behavior. However, these thoughts can be vulnerable to systematic distortions which bias the processing of information from the environment (Beck, 1967; Beck, 1976; Beck, Emery, & Greenberg, 1979). Cognitive theory conceptualizes psychopathology (e.g., anxiety or depression) as a dysfunctional bias in the content, amount, or function of an individual’s thoughts as well as the monitoring and control (metacognition) of those thoughts (Beck & Weishaar, 2000; Wells, 2000). Furthermore, cognitive theory generally accepts the important role of physiological factors (e.g., neurotransmitter levels) as well as dysfunctional cognition in contributing to vulnerability to psychopathology (Strunk, 2001). Cognitive theory has led to the development of two related kinds of interventions: self- instruction training and cognitive restructuring. Self-instruction training focuses on the proactive learning of metacognitive skills necessary to perform a novel task (Meichenbaum, 1974). Cognitive restructuring focuses on actively changing the preexisting schema underlying automatic thoughts that may be inhibiting performance of a specific task (Kinnier & Krumboltz, 1986). It should be noted that the distinction between the two interventions may be somewhat artificial, given that the two may be used interchangeably by both counselor and client.
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  • Fall '19
  • Statistical significance, Effect size, cti, James P. Sampson, Reframes

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