# C the results in part b showed that a tax on

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c. The results in part (b) showed that a tax on cigarettes leads people to substitute cigars and chewing tobacco for cigarettes when the tax on cigarettes rises. To reduce total tobacco usage, policymakers might also want to increase the tax on cigars and chewing tobacco, or pursue some type of public education program. 9. Quantity supplied equals quantity demanded at a price of \$6 and quantity of 81 pizzas (Figure 26). If price were greater than \$6, quantity supplied would exceed quantity demanded, so suppliers would reduce their price to gain sales. If price were less than \$6, quantity demanded would exceed quantity supplied, so suppliers could raise their price without losing sales. In both cases, the price would continue to adjust until it reached \$6, the only price at which there is neither a surplus nor a shortage. Figure 26 10. a. If the price of flour falls, since flour is an ingredient in bagels, the supply curve for bagels would shift to the right. The result, shown in Figure 27, would be a fall in the price of bagels and a rise in the equilibrium quantity of bagels. 34

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Figure 27 Since cream cheese is a complement to bagels, the fall in the equilibrium price of bagels increases the demand for cream cheese, as shown in Figure 28. The result is a rise in both the equilibrium price and quantity of cream cheese. So, a fall in the price of flour indeed raises both the equilibrium price of cream cheese and the equilibrium quantity of bagels. Figure 28 What happens if the price of milk falls? Since milk is an ingredient in cream cheese, the fall in the price of milk leads to an increase in the supply of cream cheese. This leads to a decrease in the price of cream cheese (Figure 29), rather than a rise in the price of cream cheese. So a fall in the price of milk could not have been responsible for the pattern observed. 35
Figure 29 b. In part (a), we found that a fall in the price of flour led to a rise in the price of cream cheese and a rise in the equilibrium quantity of bagels. If the price of flour rose, the opposite would be true; it would lead to a fall in the price of cream cheese and a fall in the equilibrium quantity of bagels. Since the question says the equilibrium price of cream cheese has risen, it could not have been caused by a rise in the price of flour. What happens if the price of milk rises? From part (a), we found that a fall in the price of milk caused a decline in the price of cream cheese, so a rise in the price of milk would cause a rise in the price of cream cheese. Since bagels and cream cheese are complements, the rise in the price of cream cheese would reduce the demand for bagels, as Figure 30 shows. The result is a decline in the equilibrium quantity of bagels. So a rise in the price of milk does cause both a rise in the price of cream cheese and a decline in the equilibrium quantity of bagels. Figure 3 11. a. As Figure 31 shows, the supply curve is vertical. The constant quantity supplied makes sense because the basketball arena has a fixed number of seats no matter what the price.

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