10 how to protect yourselves against stds abstinence

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10 How to protect yourselves against STDs Abstinence Use a condom Avoid sexual contact with individuals of unknown health status Limit number of sexual partners
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11 Gaëtan Dugas Notorious as the alleged patient zero for AIDS Worked for Air Canada as a flight attendant A study published in the American Journal of Medicine in 1984 traced many of New York City's early HIV infections to an unnamed infected homosexual male flight attendant. Dugas is now believed to be part of a cluster of homosexual men who traveled frequently, were extremely sexually active, and died of AIDS at a very early stage in the epidemic.
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12 AIDS in Homosexual men Primary mechanism of HIV transfer = Anal intercourse Delicate lining of rectum may tear or bleed. Rectum is highly susceptible to abrasions and bleeding If insertive partner is HIV +ve: Semen contains HIV and CD4+ T cells These can easily penetrate the rectal lining and enter the blood of the receptive partner If recipient partner is HIV +ve: Lots of CD4+ T cells and macrophages in rectum (carry HIV in provirus form into partner). Can enter urethra of insertive partner Or external lesions of the penis
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13 AIDS Transmission Categories 5.3 Pg 129 text 50% 13% 33%
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14 Changes in Transmission Categories 1990 2003 2005 2007 Homosexual/ Bisexual men 61% 48% 37% 43% Injection drug users 20 27 15 19 Heterosexual 5 16 32 30 ? a = Trend a
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15 How HIV is Transmitted Exposure Category % of Total US World ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Blood transfusion/ 2% 3% blood products Perinatal 1 9 Sexual intercourse 78 80 Heterosexual intercourse 27 70 Injection-drug use 19 8
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16 % of AIDS Cases Among Sexually Active Homosexual Men White, non-Hispanic All racial/ethnic minorities Black, non-hispanic Hispanic * * * * 2009
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