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22, 1862.Hitherto, he had not issued the proclamation because the war was going poorly and issuing the document without a military victory would have made it impotent. 19. Lower South’s Succession & Upper South’s Succession The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854): most important short-term cause of the Civil War A. Stephen Douglas proposed splitting the Nebraska Territory in two: Nebraska and Kansas 1.Slavery issue would be based on popular sovereignty 2.Motive: give Illinois the eastern terminus for the transcontinental railroad. 3.Kansas would presumably become slave; Nebraska free 4.36 30’ line prohibited slavery north of it; Kansas was above it. -- Solution: Repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 5.Southerners fully supported it and pushed Pierce to support it.
B. Douglas guided the bill through Congress; he was the great orator of his generation 1.Northerners shocked: saw Compromise of 1820 as a sacred pact 2.Douglas miscalculated the adverse impact of the law on the North a. Many northerners refused to honor Fugitive Slave Lawb. The antislavery movement grew significantlyc. The North became unwilling to compromise on future issues 3.Southern reactiona. Angry that northern free-soilers tried to control Kansas (which the South presumed would eventually be a slave state).b. Democratic party was shattered over the issue of Kansas a few years later 4.Effectively wrecked the Compromises of 1820 & 1850 C. Birth of the Republican party 1.Republican party formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. a. Included Whigs, northern Democrats, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings b. Abraham Lincoln came out of political retirement and ran for the Illinois Senateas a direct response to Kansas-Nebraskac. Emerged as nation’s second major political party quickly and overcame strong competition from the Know-Nothings 2.Republican party was not allowed in the South D. Considered by historians to be the main short-term cause of the Civil War. VIII. Antislavery literatureA. Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) 1.Portrayed to the North the evils of slavery by focusing on the splitting of slave families and the physical abuse of slaves.a. The novel was inspired by the Fugitive Slave Lawb. Stowe was influenced by the evangelism of the 2nd Great Awakening 2.Novel became the best seller of all time in proportion to the U.S. population
-- Also extremely popular in Britain & France 3.Had more social impact than any other novel in U.S. History a. Lincoln, when introduced to her in 1862: "So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war." b. The abolitionist movement grew in response 4.The South condemned it B. Hinton R. Helper: The Impending Crisis of the South (1857) 1.White writer from North Carolina who hated slavery and blacks.