Escape Conditioning The effect of negative reinforcement can be studied through escape conditioning. Escape conditioning takes place when an organism learns to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus or negative reinforcer. Dogs learn to jump over the bar to escape shock. Stimulus GeneralizationIt also occurs in operant conditioning. Organisms often perform a response in the presence of a stimulus that is similar to the reinforced previously.Difference between Operant and Classical Conditioning Classical and operant conditioning both involve acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination; yet their difference is straightforward. 1. Classical conditioning involves respondent behaviour. Operant conditioning involves operant behaviour i.e. voluntary action2. In classical conditioning, controlling stimulus comes before the response. In operant conditioning, the controlling stimulus, reinforcer, comes after the response. This consequence is contingent on the animal's behaviour, when animal performs a trick and obtain food.3. In operant conditioning, reinforcement depends upon the prope response. For classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus presented regardless of what the animal does. (The meat powder arrives, whether the dog salivates to the sound or not.In operant conditioning, reinforcement depends upon the prope response. For classical conditioning, unconditioned stimulus presented regardless of what the animal does. (The meat powder arrives, whether the dog salivates to the sound or not).4. Selection of response is also different. In operant conditioning the Snonse must be selected from a set of alternatives. In classical conditioning, the response is forced, that is not a matter of choice.Instrumental Conditioning Instrumental conditioning is a little bit different from the operant conditioning, but most of the times both are considered as same. Instrumental conditioning is associated with the names of E.L. Thorndike and A Skinner. Thorndike was the first to perform laboratory experiments
using instrumental conditioning. His law of effect is the forerunner of the contemporary principle of reinforcement. Instrumental conditioning involves more actively on the part of the learner than classical conditioning. The term instrumental indicates that learner has some control over his own circumstances. Whenever a person behaves for gaining the reward or avoiding the punishment, that behaviour is an example of instrumental conditioning. Instrumental learning involves learning about the consequences of behaving in a certain way. For example, individual learns that if a particular it will followed by a particular stimulus event. As a little response is boy might learn that if he cries his mother will pay attention to him and comfort him. This learning consists of discovering that a particular response is followed by particular stimulus events or consequences. In this learning, the stimulus consequence are contingent upon the learner's making a particular response In short, responses have consequences, and if we want to produce particular consequences, we have to make particular responses, because the consequencesare contingent upon the responses. Instrumental conditioning involves a contingency between a response and the subsequent stimulus consequence, the reinforcer. The
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