Air pollution clean air act epa regulates both

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Air PollutionClean Air ActEPA regulates both existing and future air pollutionEPA establishes National Ambient Air Quality StandardsStandards designed to protect public health irrespective of costEPA can also set NAAQS for pollutants that aren’t a threat to human health but might harm plants, animals or visibilitySecondary standardsStates produce implementation plans to meet NAAQSEPA regulates stationary sources of air pollution e.g. factoryMust use “best available control technology”
Air PollutionClean Air ActRequires prevention of significant declines in air quality regardless of health impact.EPA establishes standards for auto emissionsEPA sets safety standards for toxic pollutantsMaximum achievable control technology must be employedLaw allows anyone who might be adversely affected by a CAA violation to bring a suit against EPA or polluter
Water PollutionSources of water pollutionPoint source pollution caused by a single identifiable sourceNonpoint source pollution caused by multiple sources e.g. fertilizer run-off.Accidents oil spills, pipeline ruptures, chemical leaks, etc.Heat industrial discharge of heated water
Clean Water ActAllows EPA to regulate pollution of “navigable waterways” –any waterway exceptStreams or wetlands that exist intermittentlyPonds or lakes not connected to an open body of waterWaterways within a single stateSome form of cost/benefit analysis appropriateEntergy Corp v. Riverkeeper, Inc.
Clean Water ActPoint source pollution requires a permitEPA establishes pollution limitsEPA sets National Water Quality StandardsState must come up with plan to meet NWQSIdentify use of every body of waterAny body of water not meeting standards must have a plan to bring it up to standardsState must have a plan for non-point sourceDischarge of dredge or fill material into wetlands prohibited without permit
Other Water Pollution StatutesSafe Drinking WaterEPA establishes national standardsStates enforce the standardsLead water pipes prohibitedCommunity water systems must disclose level of contaminantsOcean Dumping ActProhibits dumping waste at sea without a permitOil Pollution ActSets design standards for tankers operating in US watersRequires ship owners to pay for damages caused by spills
Waste DisposalResource Conservation and Recovery ActOrdinary, non-hazardous garbage disposal left to statesNew open dumps bannedGarbage must be sent to sanitary landfills that must meet minimum standardsLandfills must monitor groundwater qualityStates provide permits for landfillsOwners of underground storage tanks must notify EPA and comply with applicable regulationEPA determines materials deemed “hazardous”Hazardous waste must be tracked from creation to disposal
SuperfundCreated to clean up toxic waste sitesAnyone who ever owned or operated a toxic waste

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