Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

He was triumphant and was declared dictator of war

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with an army thus starting a civil war. He was triumphant and was declared dictator of war. Made a lot of reforms. Despite these reforms was assassinated on the Ides of March by the Senate as they believed he had become too all powerful. This caused another civil war with his adopted son Octavian (Augustus) ending up as leader.
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12 Marcus Porcius Cato - also known as Cato the younger. Huge opponent of Julius Caesar. Titus Annius Milo - Milo was a supporter of Pompey and the optimates , and organized bands of armed slaves, mercenaries and gladiators in opposition to Clodius, who supported Pompey's rival, Julius Caesar , and the populares . The two opposing factions clashed in the streets of Rome between 57 and 52 BC. Milo was tribune of the plebs in 57 BC. He took a prominent part in recalling Cicero from exile after Clodius had gotten him exiled the prior year. One of the gangsters Publius Clodius - involved in Bona Dea incident; Cicero testifies against him but he gets acquitted. Roman politician known for his popularist tactics. As tribune , he pushed through an ambitious legislative program, including a grain dole, but he is chiefly remembered for his feud with Marcus Tullius Cicero and Titus Annius Milo , whose bodyguards murdered him on the Appian Way. Bona Dea - Clodius dresses up as a woman at the Bona Dea festival to cozy up to Caesar’s wife; gets caught and sent to trial Bibulus - consul with Caesar, tries to block everything Caesar does but is unsuccessful Julia - Julius’ daughter who marries Pompey to solidify an alliance between the two men Rubicon - the name historically given to a river that was famously crossed by Julius Caesar in 49 BC which was considered an act of insurrection and treason . Julius Caesar may have uttered the famous phrase " alea iacta est "—the die is cast—as his army marched through the shallow river. Clementia - She was defined as a celebrated virtue of Julius Caesar , who was famed for his forbearance, especially following Caesar's civil war with Pompey from 49 BC. In 44 BC, a temple was consecrated to her by the Roman Senate , possibly at Caesar's instigation as Caesar was keen to demonstrate that he had this virtue. Pharnaces - While Caesar and Pompey were at Civil war, Pharnaces took the chance to colchis and lesser Armenia. Defeats Pompus in first meeting with the Romans. Caesar eventually comes and runs him out swiftly where the saying Veni, Vidi, Vici comes from. Marcus Junius Brutus - politician in the late roman Republic. Played a key role in the assassination of Caesar. Gaius Cassius - He was elected Tribune of the Plebs in 49 B.C. He opposed Caesar, and he commanded a fleet against him during Caesar's Civil War : after Caesar defeated Pompey in the Battle of Pharsalus, Caesar overtook Cassius and forced him to surrender. After Caesar's death, Cassius fled to the East, where he amassed an army of twelve legions. He was supported and made Governor by the Senate. Though he and Brutus marched west against the allies of the Second Triumvirate , Cassius was defeated at the Battle of Phillippi and committed suicide.
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