During civil conflicts and in efforts to suppress dis sent many thousands have

During civil conflicts and in efforts to suppress dis

This preview shows page 7 - 9 out of 17 pages.

During civil conflicts, and in efforts to suppress dis - sent, many thousands have been “disappeared” around the world since the UDHR was adopted. Because it is relatively new, this Convention has been ratified by just 51 countries as of December 2015. D. Conventions and Declarations to Protect Specific Groups We might wish that general covenants on human rights would be sufficient, that conventions would not be needed Amnesty International Logo Raphael Lemkin
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8 to protect specific groups. However, in many cases, these groups have experienced severe discrimination and suf- fering and need special protections. It has proven vital for the U.N. to emphasize through conventions to protect par- ticular groups that all human beings are entitled to equal rights. The United Nations has adopted these five major conventions and two declarations designed to protect spe- cific groups: The International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) was adopted in 1965. Condemnation of the white-minority apartheid government in South Africa led many of the new Afri- can nations to champion this convention, and 177 states have ratified it. CERD became a precedent for the later conventions that address the human rights of specific groups. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the U.N. in 1979, and 189 states have ratified it. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was adopted in 1989, and all U.N. states except one have ratified it. The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families , adopted in 1990, has been ratified by just 48 states. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was adopted in 2006, and 160 states have ratified it as of December 2014. In 2007, the General Assembly approved a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples . Just four nations voted against it. This declaration emphasizes the rights of world’s 350 million indigenous peoples (peoples such as American Indians who live in a nation con- trolled by people from other cultures who generally came later) to preserve their cultures, languages, and traditions, to be protected from discrimination, and to have their educational, health care, and employment needs fully addressed by the countries where they live. A convention on the rights of indigenous peoples does not yet exist. In 2008, the General Assembly adopted, by a nar - row vote, the Declaration on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity , reaffirming that “everyone is entitled to the enjoyment of human rights without distinction of any kind,” and condemning “violations of human rights based on sexual orientation or gender identity wherever they occur.” As of December 2015, 96 states have approved this declaration.
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