3 Rationalization Excuse and justify mistakes o Ex I could have won the race

3 rationalization excuse and justify mistakes o ex i

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3. Rationalization : Excuse and justify mistakes. o Ex : “I could have won the race but the track was wet.” Or “I failed the test because my professor is a jerk”
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4. Reaction formation : Pretend you are different. [ the tendency of a repressed wish or feeling to be expressed at a conscious level in a contrasting form.] o Acting like you hate someone you really have a crush on. 5. Projection : This involves individuals attributing their own unacceptable thoughts, feeling to another person. o Ex: You might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable. You can ‘solve’ the problem by believing that they hate you. Or accusing husband for cheating. 6. Repression: Repression is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious. (Suppressing painful memories and thoughts) 7. Sublimation: Satisfying an impulse with a substitute object. In a socially acceptable way. o EX: Sport is an example of putting our emotions into something constructive. - humanistic theory: In the humanistic view, people are responsible for their lives and actions and have the freedom and will to change their attitudes and behavior. Two psychologists, Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs) and Carl Rogers (most influential humanist known for his therapy *person centered* , became well known for their humanistic theories. - behaviorism (classical conditioning ): *Pavlov dog salivating* A learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired- a response which is at first elicited by the first stimulus alone. [A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired w/ a response until it elicits that response.] structures of the mind & defense mechanisms: Chapter 4: Research Methods Research terms: hypothesis: educated guess about what you expect to find. o Based on the existing literature, Wording must be clear, Must be testable. the Independent Variable o Factor that may impact dependent variable o May be manipulated by the researcher dependent Variable o Measured in study o May be influenced by the study o Typically, an aspect of the disorder o Measured as overt behavior, self-reported thoughts/feelings, or biological symptoms Randomization o The process of assigning people to different research groups, each person equal chance of being in any group internal validity o The Extent to which you can be confident that the IV is causing the DV to change. external validity o The extent to which the results of the study can be generalized or applied outside the immediate study
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Case study: Research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. o Extensive observation o Detailed description o Foundation for early developments o Unique problems o Contributions/Challenges to theories o Limitations—reactivity Correlational research: Degree to which two variables are associated.
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