Research designs a Between groups an experiment that has two or more groups of

Research designs a between groups an experiment that

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17.Research designs: a.Between-groups: an experiment that has two or more groups of subjects each being tested by a different testing factor simultaneouslyb.Cross-sectional design: a type of observational study that analyzes data from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time—that is, cross-sectional datac.Longitudinal design: a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time 18.Random sample: a method of selecting a sample (random sample) from a statistical population in such a way that every possible sample that could be selected as a predetermined probability of being selected. Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology 1. One dimensional vs. multi-dimensional models 2. Dimensions that comprise multi-dimensional model and examples a. dimensions of one dimensional model i. single cause, operating in isolation ii. linear causal model iii. ignores critical info b. dimensions of multi-dimensional model 1. systematic 2. several independent inputs that become interdependent 3. causes cannot be considered out of context 3. Reciprocal Determinism : A model composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, the individual, and the behavior itself. An individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics . 4. Vulnerability: (susceptibility) or tendency to develop a disorder 5. Genes, dominant and recessive, a. Genes : Long molecules of DNA at various locations on chromosomes within the cell nucleus.
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b. Dominant gene : is one of a pair of genes that strongly influences a particular trait & one is only needed to determine eye color or hair color. c. Recessive gene : Must be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait. (Recessive traits can be carried in a person's genes without appearing in that person) 6. Diathesis stress model : individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors. which may then be activated under conditions of stress a. each inherited tendency is a diathesis (condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder) b. when the right kind of life event, such as a certain type of stressor, comes along, the disorder develops 7. Reciprocal gene-environment model a. outcomes are a result of interactions between genetic vulnerabilities and experience b. examples: schizophrenia, impulsivity c. genetics make people more likely to seek out certain environments, thus affecting their experiences d. example: people with a genetic vulnerability to develop a certain disorder such as blood- injury -injection phobia, may also have a personality trait - let’s say impulsiveness - that makes them more likely to be involved in minor accidents that would result in their seeing blood i.
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